/*
 
* Copyright (c) 1994, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
* DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 
*
 
* This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 
* under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 
* published by the Free Software Foundation.
  
Oracle designates this
 
* particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
 
* by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
 
*
 
* This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 
* ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
  
See the GNU General Public License
 
* version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 
* accompanied this code).
 
*
 
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 
* 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 
* Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 
*
 
* Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 
* or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 
* questions.
 
*/
package java.lang;

import java.io.ObjectStreamField;
import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Comparator;
import java.util.Formatter;
import java.util.Locale;
import java.util.regex.Matcher;
import java.util.regex.Pattern;
import java.util.regex.PatternSyntaxException;

/**
 
* The {@code String} class represents character strings. All
 
* string literals in Java programs, such as {@code "abc"}, are
 
* implemented as instances of this class.
 
* <p>
 
* Strings are constant; their values cannot be changed after they
 
* are created. String buffers support mutable strings.
 
* Because String objects are immutable they can be shared. For example:
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
     
String str = "abc";
 
* </pre></blockquote><p>
 
* is equivalent to:
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
     
char data[] = {'a', 'b', 'c'};
 
*
     
String str = new String(data);
 
* </pre></blockquote><p>
 
* Here are some more examples of how strings can be used:
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
     
System.out.println("abc");
 
*
     
String cde = "cde";
 
*
     
System.out.println("abc" + cde);
 
*
     
String c = "abc".substring(2,3);
 
*
     
String d = cde.substring(1, 2);
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
* <p>
 
* The class {@code String} includes methods for examining
 
* individual characters of the sequence, for comparing strings, for
 
* searching strings, for extracting substrings, and for creating a
 
* copy of a string with all characters translated to uppercase or to
 
* lowercase. Case mapping is based on the Unicode Standard version
 
* specified by the {@link java.lang.Character Character} class.
 
* <p>
 
* The Java language provides special support for the string
 
* concatenation operator (&nbsp;+&nbsp;), and for conversion of
 
* other objects to strings. String concatenation is implemented
 
* through the {@code StringBuilder}(or {@code StringBuffer})
 
* class and its {@code append} method.
 
* String conversions are implemented through the method
 
* {@code toString}, defined by {@code Object} and
 
* inherited by all classes in Java. For additional information on
 
* string concatenation and conversion, see Gosling, Joy, and Steele,
 
* <i>The Java Language Specification</i>.
 
*
 
* <p> Unless otherwise noted, passing a <tt>null</tt> argument to a constructor
 
* or method in this class will cause a {@link NullPointerException} to be
 
* thrown.
 
*
 
* <p>A {@code String} represents a string in the UTF-16 format
 
* in which <em>supplementary characters</em> are represented by <em>surrogate
 
* pairs</em> (see the section <a href="Character.html#unicode">Unicode
 
* Character Representations</a> in the {@code Character} class for
 
* more information).
 
* Index values refer to {@code char} code units, so a supplementary
 
* character uses two positions in a {@code String}.
 
* <p>The {@code String} class provides methods for dealing with
 
* Unicode code points (i.e., characters), in addition to those for
 
* dealing with Unicode code units (i.e., {@code char} values).
 
*
 
* @author
  
Lee Boynton
 
* @author
  
Arthur van Hoff
 
* @author
  
Martin Buchholz
 
* @author
  
Ulf Zibis
 
* @see
     
java.lang.Object#toString()
 
* @see
     
java.lang.StringBuffer
 
* @see
     
java.lang.StringBuilder
 
* @see
     
java.nio.charset.Charset
 
* @since
   
JDK1.0
 
*/


public final class String
    
implements java.io.Serializable, Comparable<String>, CharSequence {
    
/** The value is used for character storage. */
    
private final char value[];

    
/** Cache the hash code for the string */
    
private int hash; // Default to 0

    
/** use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.0.2 for interoperability */
    
private static final long serialVersionUID = -6849794470754667710L;

    
/**
     
* Class String is special cased within the Serialization Stream Protocol.
     
*
     
* A String instance is written initially into an ObjectOutputStream in the
     
* following format:
     
* <pre>
     
*
      
{@code TC_STRING} (utf String)
     
* </pre>
     
* The String is written by method {@code DataOutput.writeUTF}.
     
* A new handle is generated to
  
refer to all future references to the
     
* string instance within the stream.
     
*/

    
private static final ObjectStreamField[] serialPersistentFields =
            
new ObjectStreamField[0];

    
/**
     
* Initializes a newly created {@code String} object so that it represents
     
* an empty character sequence.
  
Note that use of this constructor is
     
* unnecessary since Strings are immutable.
     
*/

    
public String() {
        
this.value = new char[0];
    
}

    
/**
     
* Initializes a newly created {@code String} object so that it represents
     
* the same sequence of characters as the argument; in other words, the
     
* newly created string is a copy of the argument string. Unless an
     
* explicit copy of {@code original} is needed, use of this constructor is
     
* unnecessary since Strings are immutable.
     
*
     
* @param
  
original
     
*
         
A {@code String}
     
*/

    
public String(String original) {
        
this.value = original.value;
        
this.hash = original.hash;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Allocates a new {@code String} so that it represents the sequence of
     
* characters currently contained in the character array argument. The
     
* contents of the character array are copied; subsequent modification of
     
* the character array does not affect the newly created string.
     
*
     
* @param
  
value
     
*
         
The initial value of the string
     
*/

    
public String(char value[]) {
        
this.value = Arrays.copyOf(value, value.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Allocates a new {@code String} that contains characters from a subarray
     
* of the character array argument. The {@code offset} argument is the
     
* index of the first character of the subarray and the {@code count}
     
* argument specifies the length of the subarray. The contents of the
     
* subarray are copied; subsequent modification of the character array does
     
* not affect the newly created string.
     
*
     
* @param
  
value
     
*
         
Array that is the source of characters
     
*
     
* @param
  
offset
     
*
         
The initial offset
     
*
     
* @param
  
count
     
*
         
The length
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IndexOutOfBoundsException
     
*
          
If the {@code offset} and {@code count} arguments index
     
*
          
characters outside the bounds of the {@code value} array
     
*/

    
public String(char value[], int offset, int count) {
        
if (offset < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset);
        
}
        
if (count < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(count);
        
}
        
// Note: offset or count might be near -1>>>1.
        
if (offset > value.length - count) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset + count);
        
}
        
this.value = Arrays.copyOfRange(value, offset, offset+count);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Allocates a new {@code String} that contains characters from a subarray
     
* of the
 
<a href="Character.html#unicode">Unicode code point</a>
 
array
     
* argument.
  
The {@code offset} argument is the index of the first code
     
* point of the subarray and the {@code count} argument specifies the
     
* length of the subarray.
  
The contents of the subarray are converted to
     
* {@code char}s; subsequent modification of the {@code int} array does not
     
* affect the newly created string.
     
*
     
* @param
  
codePoints
     
*
         
Array that is the source of Unicode code points
     
*
     
* @param
  
offset
     
*
         
The initial offset
     
*
     
* @param
  
count
     
*
         
The length
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IllegalArgumentException
     
*
          
If any invalid Unicode code point is found in {@code
     
*
          
codePoints}
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IndexOutOfBoundsException
     
*
          
If the {@code offset} and {@code count} arguments index
     
*
          
characters outside the bounds of the {@code codePoints} array
     
*
     
* @since
  
1.5
     
*/

    
public String(int[] codePoints, int offset, int count) {
        
if (offset < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset);
        
}
        
if (count < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(count);
        
}
        
// Note: offset or count might be near -1>>>1.
        
if (offset > codePoints.length - count) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset + count);
        
}

        
final int end = offset + count;

        
// Pass 1: Compute precise size of char[]
        
int n = count;
        
for (int i = offset; i < end; i++) {
            
int c = codePoints[i];
            
if (Character.isBmpCodePoint(c))
                
continue;
            
else if (Character.isValidCodePoint(c))
                
n++;
            
else throw new IllegalArgumentException(Integer.toString(c));
        
}

        
// Pass 2: Allocate and fill in char[]
        
final char[] v = new char[n];

        
for (int i = offset, j = 0; i < end; i++, j++) {
            
int c = codePoints[i];
            
if (Character.isBmpCodePoint(c))
                
v[j] = (char)c;
            
else
                
Character.toSurrogates(c, v, j++);
        
}

        
this.value = v;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Allocates a new {@code String} constructed from a subarray of an array
     
* of 8-bit integer values.
     
*
     
* <p> The {@code offset} argument is the index of the first byte of the
     
* subarray, and the {@code count} argument specifies the length of the
     
* subarray.
     
*
     
* <p> Each {@code byte} in the subarray is converted to a {@code char} as
     
* specified in the method above.
     
*
     
* @deprecated This method does not properly convert bytes into characters.
     
* As of JDK&nbsp;1.1, the preferred way to do this is via the
     
* {@code String} constructors that take a {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.Charset}, charset name, or that use the platform's
     
* default charset.
     
*
     
* @param
  
ascii
     
*
         
The bytes to be converted to characters
     
*
     
* @param
  
hibyte
     
*
         
The top 8 bits of each 16-bit Unicode code unit
     
*
     
* @param
  
offset
     
*
         
The initial offset
     
* @param
  
count
     
*
         
The length
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IndexOutOfBoundsException
     
*
          
If the {@code offset} or {@code count} argument is invalid
     
*
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], int)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], int, int, java.lang.String)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], int, int, java.nio.charset.Charset)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], int, int)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], java.lang.String)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], java.nio.charset.Charset)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[])
     
*/

    
@Deprecated
    
public String(byte ascii[], int hibyte, int offset, int count) {
        
checkBounds(ascii, offset, count);
        
char value[] = new char[count];

        
if (hibyte == 0) {
            
for (int i = count; i-- > 0;) {
                
value[i] = (char)(ascii[i + offset] & 0xff);
            
}
        
} else {
            
hibyte <<= 8;
            
for (int i = count; i-- > 0;) {
                
value[i] = (char)(hibyte | (ascii[i + offset] & 0xff));
            
}
        
}
        
this.value = value;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Allocates a new {@code String} containing characters constructed from
     
* an array of 8-bit integer values. Each character <i>c</i>in the
     
* resulting string is constructed from the corresponding component
     
* <i>b</i> in the byte array such that:
     
*
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
*<b><i>c</i></b> == (char)(((hibyte &amp; 0xff) &lt;&lt; 8)
     
*
                         
| (<b><i>b</i></b> &amp; 0xff))
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* @deprecated
  
This method does not properly convert bytes into
     
* characters.
  
As of JDK&nbsp;1.1, the preferred way to do this is via the
     
* {@code String} constructors that take a {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.Charset}, charset name, or that use the platform's
     
* default charset.
     
*
     
* @param
  
ascii
     
*
         
The bytes to be converted to characters
     
*
     
* @param
  
hibyte
     
*
         
The top 8 bits of each 16-bit Unicode code unit
     
*
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], int, int, java.lang.String)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], int, int, java.nio.charset.Charset)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], int, int)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], java.lang.String)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[], java.nio.charset.Charset)
     
* @see
  
#String(byte[])
     
*/

    
@Deprecated
    
public String(byte ascii[], int hibyte) {
        
this(ascii, hibyte, 0, ascii.length);
    
}

    
/* Common private utility method used to bounds check the byte array
     
* and requested offset & length values used by the String(byte[],..)
     
* constructors.
     
*/

    
private static void checkBounds(byte[] bytes, int offset, int length) {
        
if (length < 0)
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(length);
        
if (offset < 0)
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset);
        
if (offset > bytes.length - length)
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(offset + length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new {@code String} by decoding the specified subarray of
     
* bytes using the specified charset.
  
The length of the new {@code String}
     
* is a function of the charset, and hence may not be equal to the length
     
* of the subarray.
     
*
     
* <p> The behavior of this constructor when the given bytes are not valid
     
* in the given charset is unspecified.
  
The {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.CharsetDecoder} class should be used when more control
     
* over the decoding process is required.
     
*
     
* @param
  
bytes
     
*
         
The bytes to be decoded into characters
     
*
     
* @param
  
offset
     
*
         
The index of the first byte to decode
     
*
     
* @param
  
length
     
*
         
The number of bytes to decode

     
* @param
  
charsetName
     
*
         
The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
     
*
         
charset}
     
*
     
* @throws
  
UnsupportedEncodingException
     
*
          
If the named charset is not supported
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IndexOutOfBoundsException
     
*
          
If the {@code offset} and {@code length} arguments index
     
*
          
characters outside the bounds of the {@code bytes} array
     
*
     
* @since
  
JDK1.1
     
*/

    
public String(byte bytes[], int offset, int length, String charsetName)
            
throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
        
if (charsetName == null)
            
throw new NullPointerException("charsetName");
        
checkBounds(bytes, offset, length);
        
this.value = StringCoding.decode(charsetName, bytes, offset, length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new {@code String} by decoding the specified subarray of
     
* bytes using the specified {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset charset}.
     
* The length of the new {@code String} is a function of the charset, and
     
* hence may not be equal to the length of the subarray.
     
*
     
* <p> This method always replaces malformed-input and unmappable-character
     
* sequences with this charset's default replacement string.
  
The {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.CharsetDecoder} class should be used when more control
     
* over the decoding process is required.
     
*
     
* @param
  
bytes
     
*
         
The bytes to be decoded into characters
     
*
     
* @param
  
offset
     
*
         
The index of the first byte to decode
     
*
     
* @param
  
length
     
*
         
The number of bytes to decode
     
*
     
* @param
  
charset
     
*
         
The {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset charset} to be used to
     
*
         
decode the {@code bytes}
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IndexOutOfBoundsException
     
*
          
If the {@code offset} and {@code length} arguments index
     
*
          
characters outside the bounds of the {@code bytes} array
     
*
     
* @since
  
1.6
     
*/

    
public String(byte bytes[], int offset, int length, Charset charset) {
        
if (charset == null)
            
throw new NullPointerException("charset");
        
checkBounds(bytes, offset, length);
        
this.value =
  
StringCoding.decode(charset, bytes, offset, length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new {@code String} by decoding the specified array of bytes
     
* using the specified {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset charset}.
  
The
     
* length of the new {@code String} is a function of the charset, and hence
     
* may not be equal to the length of the byte array.
     
*
     
* <p> The behavior of this constructor when the given bytes are not valid
     
* in the given charset is unspecified.
  
The {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.CharsetDecoder} class should be used when more control
     
* over the decoding process is required.
     
*
     
* @param
  
bytes
     
*
         
The bytes to be decoded into characters
     
*
     
* @param
  
charsetName
     
*
         
The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
     
*
         
charset}
     
*
     
* @throws
  
UnsupportedEncodingException
     
*
          
If the named charset is not supported
     
*
     
* @since
  
JDK1.1
     
*/

    
public String(byte bytes[], String charsetName)
            
throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
        
this(bytes, 0, bytes.length, charsetName);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new {@code String} by decoding the specified array of
     
* bytes using the specified {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset charset}.
     
* The length of the new {@code String} is a function of the charset, and
     
* hence may not be equal to the length of the byte array.
     
*
     
* <p> This method always replaces malformed-input and unmappable-character
     
* sequences with this charset's default replacement string.
  
The {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.CharsetDecoder} class should be used when more control
     
* over the decoding process is required.
     
*
     
* @param
  
bytes
     
*
         
The bytes to be decoded into characters
     
*
     
* @param
  
charset
     
*
         
The {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset charset} to be used to
     
*
         
decode the {@code bytes}
     
*
     
* @since
  
1.6
     
*/

    
public String(byte bytes[], Charset charset) {
        
this(bytes, 0, bytes.length, charset);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new {@code String} by decoding the specified subarray of
     
* bytes using the platform's default charset.
  
The length of the new
     
* {@code String} is a function of the charset, and hence may not be equal
     
* to the length of the subarray.
     
*
     
* <p> The behavior of this constructor when the given bytes are not valid
     
* in the default charset is unspecified.
  
The {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.CharsetDecoder} class should be used when more control
     
* over the decoding process is required.
     
*
     
* @param
  
bytes
     
*
         
The bytes to be decoded into characters
     
*
     
* @param
  
offset
     
*
         
The index of the first byte to decode
     
*
     
* @param
  
length
     
*
         
The number of bytes to decode
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IndexOutOfBoundsException
     
*
          
If the {@code offset} and the {@code length} arguments index
     
*
          
characters outside the bounds of the {@code bytes} array
     
*
     
* @since
  
JDK1.1
     
*/

    
public String(byte bytes[], int offset, int length) {
        
checkBounds(bytes, offset, length);
        
this.value = StringCoding.decode(bytes, offset, length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new {@code String} by decoding the specified array of bytes
     
* using the platform's default charset.
  
The length of the new {@code
     
* String} is a function of the charset, and hence may not be equal to the
     
* length of the byte array.
     
*
     
* <p> The behavior of this constructor when the given bytes are not valid
     
* in the default charset is unspecified.
  
The {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.CharsetDecoder} class should be used when more control
     
* over the decoding process is required.
     
*
     
* @param
  
bytes
     
*
         
The bytes to be decoded into characters
     
*
     
* @since
  
JDK1.1
     
*/

    
public String(byte bytes[]) {
        
this(bytes, 0, bytes.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Allocates a new string that contains the sequence of characters
     
* currently contained in the string buffer argument. The contents of the
     
* string buffer are copied; subsequent modification of the string buffer
     
* does not affect the newly created string.
     
*
     
* @param
  
buffer
     
*
         
A {@code StringBuffer}
     
*/

    
public String(StringBuffer buffer) {
        
synchronized(buffer) {
            
this.value = Arrays.copyOf(buffer.getValue(), buffer.length());
        
}
    
}

    
/**
     
* Allocates a new string that contains the sequence of characters
     
* currently contained in the string builder argument. The contents of the
     
* string builder are copied; subsequent modification of the string builder
     
* does not affect the newly created string.
     
*
     
* <p> This constructor is provided to ease migration to {@code
     
* StringBuilder}. Obtaining a string from a string builder via the {@code
     
* toString} method is likely to run faster and is generally preferred.
     
*
     
* @param
   
builder
     
*
          
A {@code StringBuilder}
     
*
     
* @since
  
1.5
     
*/

    
public String(StringBuilder builder) {
        
this.value = Arrays.copyOf(builder.getValue(), builder.length());
    
}

    
/*
    
* Package private constructor which shares value array for speed.
    
* this constructor is always expected to be called with share==true.
    
* a separate constructor is needed because we already have a public
    
* String(char[]) constructor that makes a copy of the given char[].
    
*/

    
String(char[] value, boolean share) {
        
// assert share : "unshared not supported";
        
this.value = value;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Package private constructor
     
*
     
* @deprecated Use {@link #String(char[],int,int)} instead.
     
*/

    
@Deprecated
    
String
(int offset, int count, char[] value) {
        
this(value, offset, count);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the length of this string.
     
* The length is equal to the number of <a href="Character.html#unicode">Unicode
     
* code units</a> in the string.
     
*
     
* @return
  
the length of the sequence of characters represented by this
     
*
          
object.
     
*/

    
public int length() {
        
return value.length;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if, and only if,
 
 
is <tt>0</tt>.
     
*
     
* @return <tt>true</tt> if
 
 
is <tt>0</tt>, otherwise
     
* <tt>false</tt>
     
*
     
* @since 1.6
     
*/

    
public boolean isEmpty() {
        
return value.length == 0;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the {@code char} value at the
     
* specified index. An index ranges from {@code 0} to
     
* {@code length() - 1}. The first {@code char} value of the sequence
     
* is at index {@code 0}, the next at index {@code 1},
     
* and so on, as for array indexing.
     
*
     
* <p>If the {@code char} value specified by the index is a
     
*
 
<a href="Character.html#unicode">surrogate</a>, the surrogate
     
* value is returned.
     
*
     
* @param
      
index
   
the index of the {@code char} value.
     
* @returnthe {@code char} value at the specified index of this string.
     
*
             
The first {@code char} value is at index {@code 0}.
     
* @exception
  
IndexOutOfBoundsExceptionif the {@code index}
     
*
             
argument is negative or not less than the length of this
     
*
             
string.
     
*/

    
public char charAt(int index) {
        
if ((index < 0) || (index >= value.length)) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
        
}
        
return value[index];
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the character (Unicode code point) at the specified
     
* index. The index refers to {@code char} values
     
* (Unicode code units) and ranges from {@code 0} to
     
*
 
{@code
  
- 1}.
     
*
     
* <p> If the {@code char} value specified at the given index
     
* is in the high-surrogate range, the following index is less
     
* than the length of this {@code String}, and the
     
* {@code char} value at the following index is in the
     
* low-surrogate range, then the supplementary code point
     
* corresponding to this surrogate pair is returned. Otherwise,
     
* the {@code char} value at the given index is returned.
     
*
     
* @param
      
index the index to the {@code char} values
     
* @returnthe code point value of the character at the
     
*
             
{@code index}
     
* @exception
  
IndexOutOfBoundsExceptionif the {@code index}
     
*
             
argument is negative or not less than the length of this
     
*
             
string.
     
* @since
      
1.5
     
*/

    
public int codePointAt(int index) {
        
if ((index < 0) || (index >= value.length)) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
        
}
        
return Character.codePointAtImpl(value, index, value.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the character (Unicode code point) before the specified
     
* index. The index refers to {@code char} values
     
* (Unicode code units) and ranges from {@code 1} to {@link
     
* CharSequence#length() length}.
     
*
     
* <p> If the {@code char} value at {@code (index - 1)}
     
* is in the low-surrogate range, {@code (index - 2)} is not
     
* negative, and the {@code char} value at {@code (index -
     
* 2)} is in the high-surrogate range, then the
     
* supplementary code point value of the surrogate pair is
     
* returned. If the {@code char} value at {@code index -
     
* 1} is an unpaired low-surrogate or a high-surrogate, the
     
* surrogate value is returned.
     
*
     
* @paramindex the index following the code point that should be returned
     
* @return
    
the Unicode code point value before the given index.
     
* @exception IndexOutOfBoundsException if the {@code index}
     
*
            
argument is less than 1 or greater than the length
     
*
            
of this string.
     
* @since1.5
     
*/

    
public int codePointBefore(int index) {
        
int i = index - 1;
        
if ((i < 0) || (i >= value.length)) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
        
}
        
return Character.codePointBeforeImpl(value, index, 0);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the number of Unicode code points in the specified text
     
* range of this {@code String}. The text range begins at the
     
* specified {@code beginIndex} and extends to the
     
* {@code char} at index {@code endIndex - 1}. Thus the
     
* length (in {@code char}s) of the text range is
     
* {@code endIndex-beginIndex}. Unpaired surrogates within
     
* the text range count as one code point each.
     
*
     
* @param beginIndex the index to the first {@code char} of
     
* the text range.
     
* @param endIndex the index after the last {@code char} of
     
* the text range.
     
* @return the number of Unicode code points in the specified text
     
* range
     
* @exception IndexOutOfBoundsException if the
     
* {@code beginIndex} is negative, or {@code endIndex}
     
* is larger than the length of this {@code String}, or
     
* {@code beginIndex} is larger than {@code endIndex}.
     
* @since
  
1.5
     
*/

    
public int codePointCount(int beginIndex, int endIndex) {
        
if (beginIndex < 0 || endIndex > value.length || beginIndex > endIndex) {
            
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
        
}
        
return Character.codePointCountImpl(value, beginIndex, endIndex - beginIndex);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the index within this {@code String} that is
     
* offset from the given {@code index} by
     
* {@code codePointOffset} code points. Unpaired surrogates
     
* within the text range given by {@code index} and
     
* {@code codePointOffset} count as one code point each.
     
*
     
* @param index the index to be offset
     
* @param codePointOffset the offset in code points
     
* @return the index within this {@code String}
     
* @exception IndexOutOfBoundsException if {@code index}
     
*
   
is negative or larger then the length of this
     
*
   
{@code String}, or if {@code codePointOffset} is positive
     
*
   
and the substring starting with {@code index} has fewer
     
*
   
than {@code codePointOffset} code points,
     
*
   
or if {@code codePointOffset} is negative and the substring
     
*
   
before {@code index} has fewer than the absolute value
     
*
   
of {@code codePointOffset} code points.
     
* @since 1.5
     
*/

    
public int offsetByCodePoints(int index, int codePointOffset) {
        
if (index < 0 || index > value.length) {
            
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
        
}
        
return Character.offsetByCodePointsImpl(value, 0, value.length,
                
index, codePointOffset);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Copy characters from this string into dst starting at dstBegin.
     
* This method doesn't perform any range checking.
     
*/

    
void getChars(char dst[], int dstBegin) {
        
System.arraycopy(value, 0, dst, dstBegin, value.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Copies characters from this string into the destination character
     
* array.
     
* <p>
     
* The first character to be copied is at index {@code srcBegin};
     
* the last character to be copied is at index {@code srcEnd-1}
     
* (thus the total number of characters to be copied is
     
* {@code srcEnd-srcBegin}). The characters are copied into the
     
* subarray of {@code dst} starting at index {@code dstBegin}
     
* and ending at index:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
*dstbegin + (srcEnd-srcBegin) - 1
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* @param
      
srcBegin
   
index of the first character in the string
     
*
                        
to copy.
     
* @param
      
srcEndindex after the last character in the string
     
*
                        
to copy.
     
* @param
      
dst
        
the destination array.
     
* @param
      
dstBegin
   
the start offset in the destination array.
     
* @exception IndexOutOfBoundsException If any of the following
     
*
            
is true:
     
*
            
<ul><li>{@code srcBegin} is negative.
     
*
            
<li>{@code srcBegin} is greater than {@code srcEnd}
     
*
            
<li>{@code srcEnd} is greater than the length of this
     
*
                
string
     
*
            
<li>{@code dstBegin} is negative
     
*
            
<li>{@code dstBegin+(srcEnd-srcBegin)} is larger than
     
*
                
{@code dst.length}</ul>
     
*/

    
public void getChars(int srcBegin, int srcEnd, char dst[], int dstBegin) {
        
if (srcBegin < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcBegin);
        
}
        
if (srcEnd > value.length) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd);
        
}
        
if (srcBegin > srcEnd) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd - srcBegin);
        
}
        
System.arraycopy(value, srcBegin, dst, dstBegin, srcEnd - srcBegin);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Copies characters from this string into the destination byte array. Each
     
* byte receives the 8 low-order bits of the corresponding character. The
     
* eight high-order bits of each character are not copied and do not
     
* participate in the transfer in any way.
     
*
     
* <p> The first character to be copied is at index {@code srcBegin}; the
     
* last character to be copied is at index {@code srcEnd-1}.
  
The total
     
* number of characters to be copied is {@code srcEnd-srcBegin}. The
     
* characters, converted to bytes, are copied into the subarray of {@code
     
* dst} starting at index {@code dstBegin} and ending at index:
     
*
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
*dstbegin + (srcEnd-srcBegin) - 1
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* @deprecated
  
This method does not properly convert characters into
     
* bytes.
  
As of JDK&nbsp;1.1, the preferred way to do this is via the
     
*
 
 
method, which uses the platform's default charset.
     
*
     
* @param
  
srcBegin
     
*
         
Index of the first character in the string to copy
     
*
     
* @param
  
srcEnd
     
*
         
Index after the last character in the string to copy
     
*
     
* @param
  
dst
     
*
         
The destination array
     
*
     
* @param
  
dstBegin
     
*
         
The start offset in the destination array
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IndexOutOfBoundsException
     
*
          
If any of the following is true:
     
*
          
<ul>
     
*
            
<li> {@code srcBegin} is negative
     
*
            
<li> {@code srcBegin} is greater than {@code srcEnd}
     
*
            
<li> {@code srcEnd} is greater than the length of this String
     
*
            
<li> {@code dstBegin} is negative
     
*
            
<li> {@code dstBegin+(srcEnd-srcBegin)} is larger than {@code
     
*
                 
dst.length}
     
*
          
</ul>
     
*/

    
@Deprecated
    
public void getBytes(int srcBegin, int srcEnd, byte dst[], int dstBegin) {
        
if (srcBegin < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcBegin);
        
}
        
if (srcEnd > value.length) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd);
        
}
        
if (srcBegin > srcEnd) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(srcEnd - srcBegin);
        
}
        
int j = dstBegin;
        
int n = srcEnd;
        
int i = srcBegin;
        
char[] val = value;
   
/* avoid getfield opcode */

        
while (i < n) {
            
dst[j++] = (byte)val[i++];
        
}
    
}

    
/**
     
* Encodes this {@code String} into a sequence of bytes using the named
     
* charset, storing the result into a new byte array.
     
*
     
* <p> The behavior of this method when this string cannot be encoded in
     
* the given charset is unspecified.
  
The {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.CharsetEncoder} class should be used when more control
     
* over the encoding process is required.
     
*
     
* @param
  
charsetName
     
*
         
The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
     
*
         
charset}
     
*
     
* @return
  
The resultant byte array
     
*
     
* @throws
  
UnsupportedEncodingException
     
*
          
If the named charset is not supported
     
*
     
* @since
  
JDK1.1
     
*/

    
public byte[] getBytes(String charsetName)
            
throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
        
if (charsetName == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        
return StringCoding.encode(charsetName, value, 0, value.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Encodes this {@code String} into a sequence of bytes using the given
     
* {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset charset}, storing the result into a
     
* new byte array.
     
*
     
* <p> This method always replaces malformed-input and unmappable-character
     
* sequences with this charset's default replacement byte array.
  
The
     
* {@link java.nio.charset.CharsetEncoder} class should be used when more
     
* control over the encoding process is required.
     
*
     
* @param
  
charset
     
*
         
The {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset} to be used to encode
     
*
         
the {@code String}
     
*
     
* @return
  
The resultant byte array
     
*
     
* @since
  
1.6
     
*/

    
public byte[] getBytes(Charset charset) {
        
if (charset == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        
return StringCoding.encode(charset, value, 0, value.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Encodes this {@code String} into a sequence of bytes using the
     
* platform's default charset, storing the result into a new byte array.
     
*
     
* <p> The behavior of this method when this string cannot be encoded in
     
* the default charset is unspecified.
  
The {@link
     
* java.nio.charset.CharsetEncoder} class should be used when more control
     
* over the encoding process is required.
     
*
     
* @return
  
The resultant byte array
     
*
     
* @since
      
JDK1.1
     
*/

    
public byte[] getBytes() {
        
return StringCoding.encode(value, 0, value.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Compares this string to the specified object.
  
The result is {@code
     
* true} if and only if the argument is not {@code null} and is a {@code
     
* String} object that represents the same sequence of characters as this
     
* object.
     
*
     
* @param
  
anObject
     
*
         
The object to compare this {@code String} against
     
*
     
* @return
  
{@code true} if the given object represents a {@code String}
     
*
          
equivalent to this string, {@code false} otherwise
     
*
     
* @see
  
#compareTo(String)
     
* @see
  
#equalsIgnoreCase(String)
     
*/

    
public boolean equals(Object anObject) {
        
if (this == anObject) {
            
return true;
        
}
        
if (anObject instanceof String) {
            
String anotherString = (String) anObject;
            
int n = value.length;
            
if (n == anotherString.value.length) {
                
char v1[] = value;
                
char v2[] = anotherString.value;
                
int i = 0;
                
while (n-- != 0) {
                    
if (v1[i] != v2[i])
                            
return false;
                    
i++;
                
}
                
return true;
            
}
        
}
        
return false;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Compares this string to the specified {@code StringBuffer}.
  
The result
     
* is {@code true} if and only if this {@code String} represents the same
     
* sequence of characters as the specified {@code StringBuffer}.
     
*
     
* @param
  
sb
     
*
         
The {@code StringBuffer} to compare this {@code String} against
     
*
     
* @return
  
{@code true} if this {@code String} represents the same
     
*
          
sequence of characters as the specified {@code StringBuffer},
     
*
          
{@code false} otherwise
     
*
     
* @since
  
1.4
     
*/

    
public boolean contentEquals(StringBuffer sb) {
        
synchronized (sb) {
            
return contentEquals((CharSequence) sb);
        
}
    
}

    
/**
     
* Compares this string to the specified {@code CharSequence}.
  
The result
     
* is {@code true} if and only if this {@code String} represents the same
     
* sequence of char values as the specified sequence.
     
*
     
* @param
  
cs
     
*
         
The sequence to compare this {@code String} against
     
*
     
* @return
  
{@code true} if this {@code String} represents the same
     
*
          
sequence of char values as the specified sequence, {@code
     
*
          
false} otherwise
     
*
     
* @since
  
1.5
     
*/

    
public boolean contentEquals(CharSequence cs) {
        
if (value.length != cs.length())
            
return false;
        
// Argument is a StringBuffer, StringBuilder
        
if (cs instanceof AbstractStringBuilder) {
            
char v1[] = value;
            
char v2[] = ((AbstractStringBuilder) cs).getValue();
            
int i = 0;
            
int n = value.length;
            
while (n-- != 0) {
                
if (v1[i] != v2[i])
                    
return false;
                
i++;
            
}
            
return true;
        
}
        
// Argument is a String
        
if (cs.equals(this))
            
return true;
        
// Argument is a generic CharSequence
        
char v1[] = value;
        
int i = 0;
        
int n = value.length;
        
while (n-- != 0) {
            
if (v1[i] != cs.charAt(i))
                
return false;
            
i++;
        
}
        
return true;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Compares this {@code String} to another {@code String}, ignoring case
     
* considerations.
  
Two strings are considered equal ignoring case if they
     
* are of the same length and corresponding characters in the two strings
     
* are equal ignoring case.
     
*
     
* <p> Two characters {@code c1} and {@code c2} are considered the same
     
* ignoring case if at least one of the following is true:
     
* <ul>
     
*
   
<li> The two characters are the same (as compared by the
     
*
        
{@code ==} operator)
     
*
   
<li> Applying the method {@link
     
*
        
java.lang.Character#toUpperCase(char)} to each character
     
*
        
produces the same result
     
*
   
<li> Applying the method {@link
     
*
        
java.lang.Character#toLowerCase(char)} to each character
     
*
        
produces the same result
     
* </ul>
     
*
     
* @param
  
anotherString
     
*
         
The {@code String} to compare this {@code String} against
     
*
     
* @return
  
{@code true} if the argument is not {@code null} and it
     
*
          
represents an equivalent {@code String} ignoring case; {@code
     
*
          
false} otherwise
     
*
     
* @see
  
#equals(Object)
     
*/

    
public boolean equalsIgnoreCase(String anotherString) {
        
return (this == anotherString) ? true
                
: (anotherString != null)
                
&& (anotherString.value.length == value.length)
                
&& regionMatches(true, 0, anotherString, 0, value.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Compares two strings lexicographically.
     
* The comparison is based on the Unicode value of each character in
     
* the strings. The character sequence represented by this
     
* {@code String} object is compared lexicographically to the
     
* character sequence represented by the argument string. The result is
     
* a negative integer if this {@code String} object
     
* lexicographically precedes the argument string. The result is a
     
* positive integer if this {@code String} object lexicographically
     
* follows the argument string. The result is zero if the strings
     
* are equal; {@code compareTo} returns {@code 0} exactly when
     
* the {@link #equals(Object)} method would return {@code true}.
     
* <p>
     
* This is the definition of lexicographic ordering. If two strings are
     
* different, then either they have different characters at some index
     
* that is a valid index for both strings, or their lengths are different,
     
* or both. If they have different characters at one or more index
     
* positions, let <i>k</i> be the smallest such index; then the string
     
* whose character at position <i>k</i> has the smaller value, as
     
* determined by using the &lt; operator, lexicographically precedes the
     
* other string. In this case, {@code compareTo} returns the
     
* difference of the two character values at position {@code k} in
     
* the two string -- that is, the value:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* this.charAt(k)-anotherString.charAt(k)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* If there is no index position at which they differ, then the shorter
     
* string lexicographically precedes the longer string. In this case,
     
* {@code compareTo} returns the difference of the lengths of the
     
* strings -- that is, the value:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* this.length()-anotherString.length()
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* @param
   
anotherStringthe {@code String} to be compared.
     
* @return
  
the value {@code 0} if the argument string is equal to
     
*
          
this string; a value less than {@code 0} if this string
     
*
          
is lexicographically less than the string argument; and a
     
*
          
value greater than {@code 0} if this string is
     
*
          
lexicographically greater than the string argument.
     
*/

    
public int compareTo(String anotherString) {
        
int len1 = value.length;
        
int len2 = anotherString.value.length;
        
int lim = Math.min(len1, len2);
        
char v1[] = value;
        
char v2[] = anotherString.value;

        
int k = 0;
        
while (k < lim) {
            
char c1 = v1[k];
            
char c2 = v2[k];
            
if (c1 != c2) {
                
return c1 - c2;
            
}
            
k++;
        
}
        
return len1 - len2;
    
}

    
/**
     
* A Comparator that orders {@code String} objects as by
     
* {@code compareToIgnoreCase}. This comparator is serializable.
     
* <p>
     
* Note that this Comparator does <em>not</em> take locale into account,
     
* and will result in an unsatisfactory ordering for certain locales.
     
* The java.text package provides <em>Collators</em> to allow
     
* locale-sensitive ordering.
     
*
     
* @seejava.text.Collator#compare(String, String)
     
* @since
   
1.2
     
*/

    
public static final Comparator<String> CASE_INSENSITIVE_ORDER
                                         
= new CaseInsensitiveComparator();
    
private static class CaseInsensitiveComparator
            
implements Comparator<String>, java.io.Serializable {
        
// use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.2.2 for interoperability
        
private static final long serialVersionUID = 8575799808933029326L;

        
public int compare(String s1, String s2) {
            
int n1 = s1.length();
            
int n2 = s2.length();
            
int min = Math.min(n1, n2);
            
for (int i = 0; i < min; i++) {
                
char c1 = s1.charAt(i);
                
char c2 = s2.charAt(i);
                
if (c1 != c2) {
                    
c1 = Character.toUpperCase(c1);
                    
c2 = Character.toUpperCase(c2);
                    
if (c1 != c2) {
                        
c1 = Character.toLowerCase(c1);
                        
c2 = Character.toLowerCase(c2);
                        
if (c1 != c2) {
                            
// No overflow because of numeric promotion
                            
return c1 - c2;
                        
}
                    
}
                
}
            
}
            
return n1 - n2;
        
}
    
}

    
/**
     
* Compares two strings lexicographically, ignoring case
     
* differences. This method returns an integer whose sign is that of
     
* calling {@code compareTo} with normalized versions of the strings
     
* where case differences have been eliminated by calling
     
* {@code Character.toLowerCase(Character.toUpperCase(character))} on
     
* each character.
     
* <p>
     
* Note that this method does <em>not</em> take locale into account,
     
* and will result in an unsatisfactory ordering for certain locales.
     
* The java.text package provides <em>collators</em> to allow
     
* locale-sensitive ordering.
     
*
     
* @param
   
strthe {@code String} to be compared.
     
* @return
  
a negative integer, zero, or a positive integer as the
     
*
          
specified String is greater than, equal to, or less
     
*
          
than this String, ignoring case considerations.
     
* @seejava.text.Collator#compare(String, String)
     
* @since
   
1.2
     
*/

    
public int compareToIgnoreCase(String str) {
        
return CASE_INSENSITIVE_ORDER.compare(this, str);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Tests if two string regions are equal.
     
* <p>
     
* A substring of this <tt>String</tt> object is compared to a substring
     
* of the argument other. The result is true if these substrings
     
* represent identical character sequences. The substring of this
     
* <tt>String</tt> object to be compared begins at index <tt>toffset</tt>
     
* and has length <tt>len</tt>. The substring of other to be compared
     
* begins at index <tt>ooffset</tt> and has length <tt>len</tt>. The
     
* result is <tt>false</tt> if and only if at least one of the following
     
* is true:
     
* <ul><li><tt>toffset</tt> is negative.
     
* <li><tt>ooffset</tt> is negative.
     
* <li><tt>toffset+len</tt> is greater than the length of this
     
* <tt>String</tt> object.
     
* <li><tt>ooffset+len</tt> is greater than the length of the other
     
* argument.
     
* <li>There is some nonnegative integer <i>k</i> less than <tt>len</tt>
     
* such that:
     
* <tt>this.charAt(toffset+<i>k</i>)&nbsp;!=&nbsp;other.charAt(ooffset+<i>k</i>)</tt>
     
* </ul>
     
*
     
* @param
   
toffsetthe starting offset of the subregion in this string.
     
* @param
   
otherthe string argument.
     
* @param
   
ooffsetthe starting offset of the subregion in the string
     
*
                    
argument.
     
* @param
   
len
       
the number of characters to compare.
     
* @return
  
{@code true} if the specified subregion of this string
     
*
          
exactly matches the specified subregion of the string argument;
     
*
          
{@code false} otherwise.
     
*/

    
public boolean regionMatches(int toffset, String other, int ooffset,
            
int len) {
        
char ta[] = value;
        
int to = toffset;
        
char pa[] = other.value;
        
int po = ooffset;
        
// Note: toffset, ooffset, or len might be near -1>>>1.
        
if ((ooffset < 0) || (toffset < 0)
                
|| (toffset > (long)value.length - len)
                
|| (ooffset > (long)other.value.length - len)) {
            
return false;
        
}
        
while (len-- > 0) {
            
if (ta[to++] != pa[po++]) {
                
return false;
            
}
        
}
        
return true;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Tests if two string regions are equal.
     
* <p>
     
* A substring of this <tt>String</tt> object is compared to a substring
     
* of the argument <tt>other</tt>. The result is <tt>true</tt> if these
     
* substrings represent character sequences that are the same, ignoring
     
* case if and only if <tt>ignoreCase</tt> is true. The substring of
     
* this <tt>String</tt> object to be compared begins at index
     
* <tt>toffset</tt> and has length <tt>len</tt>. The substring of
     
* <tt>other</tt> to be compared begins at index <tt>ooffset</tt> and
     
* has length <tt>len</tt>. The result is <tt>false</tt> if and only if
     
* at least one of the following is true:
     
* <ul><li><tt>toffset</tt> is negative.
     
* <li><tt>ooffset</tt> is negative.
     
* <li><tt>toffset+len</tt> is greater than the length of this
     
* <tt>String</tt> object.
     
* <li><tt>ooffset+len</tt> is greater than the length of the other
     
* argument.
     
* <li><tt>ignoreCase</tt> is <tt>false</tt> and there is some nonnegative
     
* integer <i>k</i> less than <tt>len</tt> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* this.charAt(toffset+k) != other.charAt(ooffset+k)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* <li><tt>ignoreCase</tt> is <tt>true</tt> and there is some nonnegative
     
* integer <i>k</i> less than <tt>len</tt> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* Character.toLowerCase(this.charAt(toffset+k)) !=
     
Character.toLowerCase(other.charAt(ooffset+k))
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* and:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* Character.toUpperCase(this.charAt(toffset+k)) !=
     
*
         
Character.toUpperCase(other.charAt(ooffset+k))
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* </ul>
     
*
     
* @param
   
ignoreCaseif {@code true}, ignore case when comparing
     
*
                       
characters.
     
* @param
   
toffset
      
the starting offset of the subregion in this
     
*
                       
string.
     
* @param
   
other
        
the string argument.
     
* @param
   
ooffset
      
the starting offset of the subregion in the string
     
*
                       
argument.
     
* @param
   
len
          
the number of characters to compare.
     
* @return
  
{@code true} if the specified subregion of this string
     
*
          
matches the specified subregion of the string argument;
     
*
          
{@code false} otherwise. Whether the matching is exact
     
*
          
or case insensitive depends on the {@code ignoreCase}
     
*
          
argument.
     
*/

    
public boolean regionMatches(boolean ignoreCase, int toffset,
            
String other, int ooffset, int len) {
        
char ta[] = value;
        
int to = toffset;
        
char pa[] = other.value;
        
int po = ooffset;
        
// Note: toffset, ooffset, or len might be near -1>>>1.
        
if ((ooffset < 0) || (toffset < 0)
                
|| (toffset > (long)value.length - len)
                
|| (ooffset > (long)other.value.length - len)) {
            
return false;
        
}
        
while (len-- > 0) {
            
char c1 = ta[to++];
            
char c2 = pa[po++];
            
if (c1 == c2) {
                
continue;
            
}
            
if (ignoreCase) {
                
// If characters don't match but case may be ignored,
                
// try converting both characters to uppercase.
                
// If the results match, then the comparison scan should
                
// continue.
                
char u1 = Character.toUpperCase(c1);
                
char u2 = Character.toUpperCase(c2);
                
if (u1 == u2) {
                    
continue;
                
}
                
// Unfortunately, conversion to uppercase does not work properly
                
// for the Georgian alphabet, which has strange rules about case
                
// conversion.
  
So we need to make one last check before
                
// exiting.
                
if (Character.toLowerCase(u1) == Character.toLowerCase(u2)) {
                    
continue;
                
}
            
}
            
return false;
        
}
        
return true;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Tests if the substring of this string beginning at the
     
* specified index starts with the specified prefix.
     
*
     
* @param
   
prefix
    
the prefix.
     
* @param
   
toffsetwhere to begin looking in this string.
     
* @return
  
{@code true} if the character sequence represented by the
     
*
          
argument is a prefix of the substring of this object starting
     
*
          
at index {@code toffset}; {@code false} otherwise.
     
*
          
The result is {@code false} if {@code toffset} is
     
*
          
negative or greater than the length of this
     
*
          
{@code String} object; otherwise the result is the same
     
*
          
as the result of the expression
     
*
          
<pre>
     
*
          
this.substring(toffset).startsWith(prefix)
     
*
          
</pre>
     
*/

    
public boolean startsWith(String prefix, int toffset) {
        
char ta[] = value;
        
int to = toffset;
        
char pa[] = prefix.value;
        
int po = 0;
        
int pc = prefix.value.length;
        
// Note: toffset might be near -1>>>1.
        
if ((toffset < 0) || (toffset > value.length - pc)) {
            
return false;
        
}
        
while (--pc >= 0) {
            
if (ta[to++] != pa[po++]) {
                
return false;
            
}
        
}
        
return true;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Tests if this string starts with the specified prefix.
     
*
     
* @param
   
prefixthe prefix.
     
* @return
  
{@code true} if the character sequence represented by the
     
*
          
argument is a prefix of the character sequence represented by
     
*
          
this string; {@code false} otherwise.
     
*
          
Note also that {@code true} will be returned if the
     
*
          
argument is an empty string or is equal to this
     
*
          
{@code String} object as determined by the
     
*
          
{@link #equals(Object)} method.
     
* @since
   
1. 0
     
*/

    
public boolean startsWith(String prefix) {
        
return startsWith(prefix, 0);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Tests if this string ends with the specified suffix.
     
*
     
* @param
   
suffixthe suffix.
     
* @return
  
{@code true} if the character sequence represented by the
     
*
          
argument is a suffix of the character sequence represented by
     
*
          
this object; {@code false} otherwise. Note that the
     
*
          
result will be {@code true} if the argument is the
     
*
          
empty string or is equal to this {@code String} object
     
*
          
as determined by the {@link #equals(Object)} method.
     
*/

    
public boolean endsWith(String suffix) {
        
return startsWith(suffix, value.length - suffix.value.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a hash code for this string. The hash code for a
     
* {@code String} object is computed as
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* s[0]*31^(n-1) + s[1]*31^(n-2) + ... + s[n-1]
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* using {@code int} arithmetic, where {@code s[i]} is the
     
* <i>i</i>th character of the string, {@code n} is the length of
     
* the string, and {@code ^} indicates exponentiation.
     
* (The hash value of the empty string is zero.)
     
*
     
* @return
  
a hash code value for this object.
     
*/

    
public int hashCode() {
        
int h = hash;
        
if (h == 0 && value.length > 0) {
            
char val[] = value;

            
for (int i = 0; i < value.length; i++) {
                
h = 31 * h + val[i];
            
}
            
hash = h;
        
}
        
return h;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the index within this string of the first occurrence of
     
* the specified character. If a character with value
     
* {@code ch} occurs in the character sequence represented by
     
* this {@code String} object, then the index (in Unicode
     
* code units) of the first such occurrence is returned. For
     
* values of {@code ch} in the range from 0 to 0xFFFF
     
* (inclusive), this is the smallest value <i>k</i> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* this.charAt(<i>k</i>) == ch
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* is true. For other values of {@code ch}, it is the
     
* smallest value <i>k</i> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* this.codePointAt(<i>k</i>) == ch
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* is true. In either case, if no such character occurs in this
     
* string, then {@code -1} is returned.
     
*
     
* @param
   
cha character (Unicode code point).
     
* @return
  
the index of the first occurrence of the character in the
     
*
          
character sequence represented by this object, or
     
*
          
{@code -1} if the character does not occur.
     
*/

    
public int indexOf(int ch) {
        
return indexOf(ch, 0);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the index within this string of the first occurrence of the
     
* specified character, starting the search at the specified index.
     
* <p>
     
* If a character with value {@code ch} occurs in the
     
* character sequence represented by this {@code String}
     
* object at an index no smaller than {@code fromIndex}, then
     
* the index of the first such occurrence is returned. For values
     
* of {@code ch} in the range from 0 to 0xFFFF (inclusive),
     
* this is the smallest value <i>k</i> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* (this.charAt(<i>k</i>) == ch) && (<i>k</i> &gt;= fromIndex)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* is true. For other values of {@code ch}, it is the
     
* smallest value <i>k</i> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* (this.codePointAt(<i>k</i>) == ch) && (<i>k</i> &gt;= fromIndex)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* is true. In either case, if no such character occurs in this
     
* string at or after position {@code fromIndex}, then
     
* {@code -1} is returned.
     
*
     
* <p>
     
* There is no restriction on the value of {@code fromIndex}. If it
     
* is negative, it has the same effect as if it were zero: this entire
     
* string may be searched. If it is greater than the length of this
     
* string, it has the same effect as if it were equal to the length of
     
* this string: {@code -1} is returned.
     
*
     
* <p>All indices are specified in {@code char} values
     
* (Unicode code units).
     
*
     
* @param
   
ch
          
a character (Unicode code point).
     
* @param
   
fromIndexthe index to start the search from.
     
* @return
  
the index of the first occurrence of the character in the
     
*
          
character sequence represented by this object that is greater
     
*
          
than or equal to {@code fromIndex}, or {@code -1}
     
*
          
if the character does not occur.
     
*/

    
public int indexOf(int ch, int fromIndex) {
        
final int max = value.length;
        
if (fromIndex < 0) {
            
fromIndex = 0;
        
} else if (fromIndex >= max) {
            
// Note: fromIndex might be near -1>>>1.
            
return -1;
        
}

        
if (ch < Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT) {
            
// handle most cases here (ch is a BMP code point or a
            
// negative value (invalid code point))
            
final char[] value = this.value;
            
for (int i = fromIndex; i < max; i++) {
                
if (value[i] == ch) {
                    
return i;
                
}
            
}
            
return -1;
        
} else {
            
return indexOfSupplementary(ch, fromIndex);
        
}
    
}

    
/**
     
* Handles (rare) calls of indexOf with a supplementary character.
     
*/

    
private int indexOfSupplementary(int ch, int fromIndex) {
        
if (Character.isValidCodePoint(ch)) {
            
final char[] value = this.value;
            
final char hi = Character.highSurrogate(ch);
            
final char lo = Character.lowSurrogate(ch);
            
final int max = value.length - 1;
            
for (int i = fromIndex; i < max; i++) {
                
if (value[i] == hi && value[i + 1] == lo) {
                    
return i;
                
}
            
}
        
}
        
return -1;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the index within this string of the last occurrence of
     
* the specified character. For values of {@code ch} in the
     
* range from 0 to 0xFFFF (inclusive), the index (in Unicode code
     
* units) returned is the largest value <i>k</i> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* this.charAt(<i>k</i>) == ch
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* is true. For other values of {@code ch}, it is the
     
* largest value <i>k</i> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* this.codePointAt(<i>k</i>) == ch
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* is true.
  
In either case, if no such character occurs in this
     
* string, then {@code -1} is returned.
  
The
     
* {@code String} is searched backwards starting at the last
     
* character.
     
*
     
* @param
   
cha character (Unicode code point).
     
* @return
  
the index of the last occurrence of the character in the
     
*
          
character sequence represented by this object, or
     
*
          
{@code -1} if the character does not occur.
     
*/

    
public int lastIndexOf(int ch) {
        
return lastIndexOf(ch, value.length - 1);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the index within this string of the last occurrence of
     
* the specified character, searching backward starting at the
     
* specified index. For values of {@code ch} in the range
     
* from 0 to 0xFFFF (inclusive), the index returned is the largest
     
* value <i>k</i> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* (this.charAt(<i>k</i>) == ch) && (<i>k</i> &lt;= fromIndex)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* is true. For other values of {@code ch}, it is the
     
* largest value <i>k</i> such that:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* (this.codePointAt(<i>k</i>) == ch) && (<i>k</i> &lt;= fromIndex)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* is true. In either case, if no such character occurs in this
     
* string at or before position {@code fromIndex}, then
     
* {@code -1} is returned.
     
*
     
* <p>All indices are specified in {@code char} values
     
* (Unicode code units).
     
*
     
* @param
   
ch
          
a character (Unicode code point).
     
* @param
   
fromIndexthe index to start the search from. There is no
     
*
          
restriction on the value of {@code fromIndex}. If it is
     
*
          
greater than or equal to the length of this string, it has
     
*
          
the same effect as if it were equal to one less than the
     
*
          
length of this string: this entire string may be searched.
     
*
          
If it is negative, it has the same effect as if it were -1:
     
*
          
-1 is returned.
     
* @return
  
the index of the last occurrence of the character in the
     
*
          
character sequence represented by this object that is less
     
*
          
than or equal to {@code fromIndex}, or {@code -1}
     
*
          
if the character does not occur before that point.
     
*/

    
public int lastIndexOf(int ch, int fromIndex) {
        
if (ch < Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT) {
            
// handle most cases here (ch is a BMP code point or a
            
// negative value (invalid code point))
            
final char[] value = this.value;
            
int i = Math.min(fromIndex, value.length - 1);
            
for (; i >= 0; i--) {
                
if (value[i] == ch) {
                    
return i;
                
}
            
}
            
return -1;
        
} else {
            
return lastIndexOfSupplementary(ch, fromIndex);
        
}
    
}

    
/**
     
* Handles (rare) calls of lastIndexOf with a supplementary character.
     
*/

    
private int lastIndexOfSupplementary(int ch, int fromIndex) {
        
if (Character.isValidCodePoint(ch)) {
            
final char[] value = this.value;
            
char hi = Character.highSurrogate(ch);
            
char lo = Character.lowSurrogate(ch);
            
int i = Math.min(fromIndex, value.length - 2);
            
for (; i >= 0; i--) {
                
if (value[i] == hi && value[i + 1] == lo) {
                    
return i;
                
}
            
}
        
}
        
return -1;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the index within this string of the first occurrence of the
     
* specified substring.
     
*
     
* <p>The returned index is the smallest value <i>k</i> for which:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* this.startsWith(str, <i>k</i>)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* If no such value of <i>k</i> exists, then {@code -1} is returned.
     
*
     
* @param
   
strthe substring to search for.
     
* @return
  
the index of the first occurrence of the specified substring,
     
*
          
or {@code -1} if there is no such occurrence.
     
*/

    
public int indexOf(String str) {
        
return indexOf(str, 0);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the index within this string of the first occurrence of the
     
* specified substring, starting at the specified index.
     
*
     
* <p>The returned index is the smallest value <i>k</i> for which:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* <i>k</i> &gt;= fromIndex && this.startsWith(str, <i>k</i>)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* If no such value of <i>k</i> exists, then {@code -1} is returned.
     
*
     
* @param
   
str
         
the substring to search for.
     
* @param
   
fromIndexthe index from which to start the search.
     
* @return
  
the index of the first occurrence of the specified substring,
     
*
          
starting at the specified index,
     
*
          
or {@code -1} if there is no such occurrence.
     
*/

    
public int indexOf(String str, int fromIndex) {
        
return indexOf(value, 0, value.length,
                
str.value, 0, str.value.length, fromIndex);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Code shared by String and StringBuffer to do searches. The
     
* source is the character array being searched, and the target
     
* is the string being searched for.
     
*
     
* @param
   
source
       
the characters being searched.
     
* @param
   
sourceOffset offset of the source string.
     
* @param
   
sourceCount
  
count of the source string.
     
* @param
   
target
       
the characters being searched for.
     
* @param
   
targetOffset offset of the target string.
     
* @param
   
targetCount
  
count of the target string.
     
* @param
   
fromIndex
    
the index to begin searching from.
     
*/

    
static int indexOf(char[] source, int sourceOffset, int sourceCount,
            
char[] target, int targetOffset, int targetCount,
            
int fromIndex) {
        
if (fromIndex >= sourceCount) {
            
return (targetCount == 0 ? sourceCount : -1);
        
}
        
if (fromIndex < 0) {
            
fromIndex = 0;
        
}
        
if (targetCount == 0) {
            
return fromIndex;
        
}

        
char first = target[targetOffset];
        
int max = sourceOffset + (sourceCount - targetCount);

        
for (int i = sourceOffset + fromIndex; i <= max; i++) {
            
/* Look for first character. */
            
if (source[i] != first) {
                
while (++i <= max && source[i] != first);
            
}

            
/* Found first character, now look at the rest of v2 */
            
if (i <= max) {
                
int j = i + 1;
                
int end = j + targetCount - 1;
                
for (int k = targetOffset + 1; j < end && source[j]
                        
== target[k]; j++, k++);

                
if (j == end) {
                    
/* Found whole string. */
                    
return i - sourceOffset;
                
}
            
}
        
}
        
return -1;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the index within this string of the last occurrence of the
     
* specified substring.
  
The last occurrence of the empty string ""
     
* is considered to occur at the index value {@code this.length()}.
     
*
     
* <p>The returned index is the largest value <i>k</i> for which:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* this.startsWith(str, <i>k</i>)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* If no such value of <i>k</i> exists, then {@code -1} is returned.
     
*
     
* @param
   
strthe substring to search for.
     
* @return
  
the index of the last occurrence of the specified substring,
     
*
          
or {@code -1} if there is no such occurrence.
     
*/

    
public int lastIndexOf(String str) {
        
return lastIndexOf(str, value.length);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the index within this string of the last occurrence of the
     
* specified substring, searching backward starting at the specified index.
     
*
     
* <p>The returned index is the largest value <i>k</i> for which:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* <i>k</i> &lt;= fromIndex && this.startsWith(str, <i>k</i>)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
* If no such value of <i>k</i> exists, then {@code -1} is returned.
     
*
     
* @param
   
str
         
the substring to search for.
     
* @param
   
fromIndexthe index to start the search from.
     
* @return
  
the index of the last occurrence of the specified substring,
     
*
          
searching backward from the specified index,
     
*
          
or {@code -1} if there is no such occurrence.
     
*/

    
public int lastIndexOf(String str, int fromIndex) {
        
return lastIndexOf(value, 0, value.length,
                
str.value, 0, str.value.length, fromIndex);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Code shared by String and StringBuffer to do searches. The
     
* source is the character array being searched, and the target
     
* is the string being searched for.
     
*
     
* @param
   
source
       
the characters being searched.
     
* @param
   
sourceOffset offset of the source string.
     
* @param
   
sourceCount
  
count of the source string.
     
* @param
   
target
       
the characters being searched for.
     
* @param
   
targetOffset offset of the target string.
     
* @param
   
targetCount
  
count of the target string.
     
* @param
   
fromIndex
    
the index to begin searching from.
     
*/

    
static int lastIndexOf(char[] source, int sourceOffset, int sourceCount,
            
char[] target, int targetOffset, int targetCount,
            
int fromIndex) {
        
/*
         
* Check arguments; return immediately where possible. For
         
* consistency, don't check for null str.
         
*/

        
int rightIndex = sourceCount - targetCount;
        
if (fromIndex < 0) {
            
return -1;
        
}
        
if (fromIndex > rightIndex) {
            
fromIndex = rightIndex;
        
}
        
/* Empty string always matches. */
        
if (targetCount == 0) {
            
return fromIndex;
        
}

        
int strLastIndex = targetOffset + targetCount - 1;
        
char strLastChar = target[strLastIndex];
        
int min = sourceOffset + targetCount - 1;
        
int i = min + fromIndex;

        
startSearchForLastChar:
        
while (true) {
            
while (i >= min && source[i] != strLastChar) {
                
i--;
            
}
            
if (i < min) {
                
return -1;
            
}
            
int j = i - 1;
            
int start = j - (targetCount - 1);
            
int k = strLastIndex - 1;

            
while (j > start) {
                
if (source[j--] != target[k--]) {
                    
i--;
                    
continue startSearchForLastChar;
                
}
            
}
            
return start - sourceOffset + 1;
        
}
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a new string that is a substring of this string. The
     
* substring begins with the character at the specified index and
     
* extends to the end of this string. <p>
     
* Examples:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* "unhappy".substring(2) returns "happy"
     
* "Harbison".substring(3) returns "bison"
     
* "emptiness".substring(9) returns "" (an empty string)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* @param
      
beginIndex
   
the beginning index, inclusive.
     
* @returnthe specified substring.
     
* @exception
  
IndexOutOfBoundsExceptionif
     
*
             
{@code beginIndex} is negative or larger than the
     
*
             
length of this {@code String} object.
     
*/

    
public String substring(int beginIndex) {
        
if (beginIndex < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(beginIndex);
        
}
        
int subLen = value.length - beginIndex;
        
if (subLen < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(subLen);
        
}
        
return (beginIndex == 0) ? this : new String(value, beginIndex, subLen);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a new string that is a substring of this string. The
     
* substring begins at the specified {@code beginIndex} and
     
* extends to the character at index {@code endIndex - 1}.
     
* Thus the length of the substring is {@code endIndex-beginIndex}.
     
* <p>
     
* Examples:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* "hamburger".substring(4, 8) returns "urge"
     
* "smiles".substring(1, 5) returns "mile"
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* @param
      
beginIndex
   
the beginning index, inclusive.
     
* @param
      
endIndexthe ending index, exclusive.
     
* @returnthe specified substring.
     
* @exception
  
IndexOutOfBoundsExceptionif the
     
*
             
{@code beginIndex} is negative, or
     
*
             
{@code endIndex} is larger than the length of
     
*
             
this {@code String} object, or
     
*
             
{@code beginIndex} is larger than
     
*
             
{@code endIndex}.
     
*/

    
public String substring(int beginIndex, int endIndex) {
        
if (beginIndex < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(beginIndex);
        
}
        
if (endIndex > value.length) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(endIndex);
        
}
        
int subLen = endIndex - beginIndex;
        
if (subLen < 0) {
            
throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(subLen);
        
}
        
return ((beginIndex == 0) && (endIndex == value.length)) ? this
                
: new String(value, beginIndex, subLen);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a new character sequence that is a subsequence of this sequence.
     
*
     
* <p> An invocation of this method of the form
     
*
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* str.subSequence(begin,&nbsp;end)</pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation
     
*
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* str.substring(begin,&nbsp;end)</pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* This method is defined so that the <tt>String</tt> class can implement
     
* the {@link CharSequence} interface. </p>
     
*
     
* @param
      
beginIndex
   
the begin index, inclusive.
     
* @param
      
endIndexthe end index, exclusive.
     
* @returnthe specified subsequence.
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IndexOutOfBoundsException
     
*
          
if <tt>beginIndex</tt> or <tt>endIndex</tt> are negative,
     
*
          
if <tt>endIndex</tt> is greater than <tt>length()</tt>,
     
*
          
or if <tt>beginIndex</tt> is greater than <tt>startIndex</tt>
     
*
     
* @since 1.4
     
* @spec JSR-51
     
*/

    
public CharSequence subSequence(int beginIndex, int endIndex) {
        
return this.substring(beginIndex, endIndex);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Concatenates the specified string to the end of this string.
     
* <p>
     
* If the length of the argument string is {@code 0}, then this
     
* {@code String} object is returned. Otherwise, a new
     
* {@code String} object is created, representing a character
     
* sequence that is the concatenation of the character sequence
     
* represented by this {@code String} object and the character
     
* sequence represented by the argument string.<p>
     
* Examples:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* "cares".concat("s") returns "caress"
     
* "to".concat("get").concat("her") returns "together"
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* @param
   
strthe {@code String} that is concatenated to the end
     
*
                
of this {@code String}.
     
* @return
  
a string that represents the concatenation of this object's
     
*
          
characters followed by the string argument's characters.
     
*/

    
public String concat(String str) {
        
int otherLen = str.length();
        
if (otherLen == 0) {
            
return this;
        
}
        
int len = value.length;
        
char buf[] = Arrays.copyOf(value, len + otherLen);
        
str.getChars(buf, len);
        
return new String(buf, true);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a new string resulting from replacing all occurrences of
     
* {@code oldChar} in this string with {@code newChar}.
     
* <p>
     
* If the character {@code oldChar} does not occur in the
     
* character sequence represented by this {@code String} object,
     
* then a reference to this {@code String} object is returned.
     
* Otherwise, a new {@code String} object is created that
     
* represents a character sequence identical to the character sequence
     
* represented by this {@code String} object, except that every
     
* occurrence of {@code oldChar} is replaced by an occurrence
     
* of {@code newChar}.
     
* <p>
     
* Examples:
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
* "mesquite in your cellar".replace('e', 'o')
     
*
         
returns "mosquito in your collar"
     
* "the war of baronets".replace('r', 'y')
     
*
         
returns "the way of bayonets"
     
* "sparring with a purple porpoise".replace('p', 't')
     
*
         
returns "starring with a turtle tortoise"
     
* "JonL".replace('q', 'x') returns "JonL" (no change)
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* @param
   
oldCharthe old character.
     
* @param
   
newCharthe new character.
     
* @return
  
a string derived from this string by replacing every
     
*
          
occurrence of {@code oldChar} with {@code newChar}.
     
*/

    
public String replace(char oldChar, char newChar) {
        
if (oldChar != newChar) {
            
int len = value.length;
            
int i = -1;
            
char[] val = value; /* avoid getfield opcode */

            
while (++i < len) {
                
if (val[i] == oldChar) {
                    
break;
                
}
            
}
            
if (i < len) {
                
char buf[] = new char[len];
                
for (int j = 0; j < i; j++) {
                    
buf[j] = val[j];
                
}
                
while (i < len) {
                    
char c = val[i];
                    
buf[i] = (c == oldChar) ? newChar : c;
                    
i++;
                
}
                
return new String(buf, true);
            
}
        
}
        
return this;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Tells whether or not this string matches the given <a
     
* href="../util/regex/Pattern.html#sum">regular expression</a>.
     
*
     
* <p> An invocation of this method of the form
     
* <i>str</i><tt>.matches(</tt><i>regex</i><tt>)</tt> yields exactly the
     
* same result as the expression
     
*
     
* <blockquote><tt>
 
.{@link
     
* java.util.regex.Pattern#matches(String,CharSequence)
     
* matches}(</tt><i>regex</i><tt>,</tt> <i>str</i><tt>)</tt></blockquote>
     
*
     
* @param
   
regex
     
*
          
the regular expression to which this string is to be matched
     
*
     
* @return
  
<tt>true</tt> if, and only if, this string matches the
     
*
          
given regular expression
     
*
     
* @throws
  
PatternSyntaxException
     
*
          
if the regular expression's syntax is invalid
     
*
     
*
 

     
*
     
* @since 1.4
     
* @spec JSR-51
     
*/

    
public boolean matches(String regex) {
        
return Pattern.matches(regex, this);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns true if and only if this string contains the specified
     
* sequence of char values.
     
*
     
* @param s the sequence to search for
     
* @return true if this string contains {@code s}, false otherwise
     
* @throws NullPointerException if {@code s} is {@code null}
     
* @since 1.5
     
*/

    
public boolean contains(CharSequence s) {
        
return indexOf(s.toString()) > -1;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Replaces the first substring of this string that matches the given <a
     
* href="../util/regex/Pattern.html#sum">regular expression</a> with the
     
* given replacement.
     
*
     
* <p> An invocation of this method of the form
     
* <i>str</i><tt>.replaceFirst(</tt><i>regex</i><tt>,</tt> <i>repl</i><tt>)</tt>
     
* yields exactly the same result as the expression
     
*
     
* <blockquote><tt>
     
*
 
.{@link java.util.regex.Pattern#compile
     
* compile}(</tt><i>regex</i><tt>).{@link
     
* java.util.regex.Pattern#matcher(java.lang.CharSequence)
     
* matcher}(</tt><i>str</i><tt>).{@link java.util.regex.Matcher#replaceFirst
     
* replaceFirst}(</tt><i>repl</i><tt>)</tt></blockquote>
     
*
     
*<p>
     
* Note that backslashes (<tt>\</tt>) and dollar signs (<tt>$</tt>) in the
     
* replacement string may cause the results to be different than if it were
     
* being treated as a literal replacement string; see
     
* {@link java.util.regex.Matcher#replaceFirst}.
     
* Use {@link java.util.regex.Matcher#quoteReplacement} to suppress the special
     
* meaning of these characters, if desired.
     
*
     
* @param
   
regex
     
*
          
the regular expression to which this string is to be matched
     
* @param
   
replacement
     
*
          
the string to be substituted for the first match
     
*
     
* @return
  
The resulting <tt>String</tt>
     
*
     
* @throws
  
PatternSyntaxException
     
*
          
if the regular expression's syntax is invalid
     
*
     
*
 

     
*
     
* @since 1.4
     
* @spec JSR-51
     
*/

    
public String replaceFirst(String regex, String replacement) {
        
return Pattern.compile(regex).matcher(this).replaceFirst(replacement);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Replaces each substring of this string that matches the given <a
     
* href="../util/regex/Pattern.html#sum">regular expression</a> with the
     
* given replacement.
     
*
     
* <p> An invocation of this method of the form
     
* <i>str</i><tt>.replaceAll(</tt><i>regex</i><tt>,</tt> <i>repl</i><tt>)</tt>
     
* yields exactly the same result as the expression
     
*
     
* <blockquote><tt>
     
*
 
.{@link java.util.regex.Pattern#compile
     
* compile}(</tt><i>regex</i><tt>).{@link
     
* java.util.regex.Pattern#matcher(java.lang.CharSequence)
     
* matcher}(</tt><i>str</i><tt>).{@link java.util.regex.Matcher#replaceAll
     
* replaceAll}(</tt><i>repl</i><tt>)</tt></blockquote>
     
*
     
*<p>
     
* Note that backslashes (<tt>\</tt>) and dollar signs (<tt>$</tt>) in the
     
* replacement string may cause the results to be different than if it were
     
* being treated as a literal replacement string; see
     
* {@link java.util.regex.Matcher#replaceAll Matcher.replaceAll}.
     
* Use {@link java.util.regex.Matcher#quoteReplacement} to suppress the special
     
* meaning of these characters, if desired.
     
*
     
* @param
   
regex
     
*
          
the regular expression to which this string is to be matched
     
* @param
   
replacement
     
*
          
the string to be substituted for each match
     
*
     
* @return
  
The resulting <tt>String</tt>
     
*
     
* @throws
  
PatternSyntaxException
     
*
          
if the regular expression's syntax is invalid
     
*
     
*
 

     
*
     
* @since 1.4
     
* @spec JSR-51
     
*/

    
public String replaceAll(String regex, String replacement) {
        
return Pattern.compile(regex).matcher(this).replaceAll(replacement);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Replaces each substring of this string that matches the literal target
     
* sequence with the specified literal replacement sequence. The
     
* replacement proceeds from the beginning of the string to the end, for
     
* example, replacing "aa" with "b" in the string "aaa" will result in
     
* "ba" rather than "ab".
     
*
     
* @param
  
target The sequence of char values to be replaced
     
* @param
  
replacement The replacement sequence of char values
     
* @return
  
The resulting string
     
* @throws NullPointerException if {@code target} or
     
*
         
{@code replacement} is {@code null}.
     
* @since 1.5
     
*/

    
public String replace(CharSequence target, CharSequence replacement) {
        
return Pattern.compile(target.toString(), Pattern.LITERAL).matcher(
                
this).replaceAll(Matcher.quoteReplacement(replacement.toString()));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Splits this string around matches of the given
     
*
 
<a href="../util/regex/Pattern.html#sum">regular expression</a>.
     
*
     
* <p> The array returned by this method contains each substring of this
     
* string that is terminated by another substring that matches the given
     
* expression or is terminated by the end of the string.
  
The substrings in
     
* the array are in the order in which they occur in this string.
  
If the
     
* expression does not match any part of the input then the resulting array
     
* has just one element, namely this string.
     
*
     
* <p> The <tt>limit</tt> parameter controls the number of times the
     
* pattern is applied and therefore affects the length of the resulting
     
* array.
  
If the limit <i>n</i> is greater than zero then the pattern
     
* will be applied at most <i>n</i>&nbsp;-&nbsp;1 times, the array's
     
* length will be no greater than <i>n</i>, and the array's last entry
     
* will contain all input beyond the last matched delimiter.
  
If <i>n</i>
     
* is non-positive then the pattern will be applied as many times as
     
* possible and the array can have any length.
  
If <i>n</i> is zero then
     
* the pattern will be applied as many times as possible, the array can
     
* have any length, and trailing empty strings will be discarded.
     
*
     
* <p> The string <tt>"boo:and:foo"</tt>, for example, yields the
     
* following results with these parameters:
     
*
     
* <blockquote><table cellpadding=1 cellspacing=0 summary="Split example showing regex, limit, and result">
     
* <tr>
     
*<th>Regex</th>
     
*<th>Limit</th>
     
*<th>Result</th>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr><td align=center>:</td>
     
*<td align=center>2</td>
     
*<td><tt>{ "boo", "and:foo" }</tt></td></tr>
     
* <tr><td align=center>:</td>
     
*<td align=center>5</td>
     
*<td><tt>{ "boo", "and", "foo" }</tt></td></tr>
     
* <tr><td align=center>:</td>
     
*<td align=center>-2</td>
     
*<td><tt>{ "boo", "and", "foo" }</tt></td></tr>
     
* <tr><td align=center>o</td>
     
*<td align=center>5</td>
     
*<td><tt>{ "b", "", ":and:f", "", "" }</tt></td></tr>
     
* <tr><td align=center>o</td>
     
*<td align=center>-2</td>
     
*<td><tt>{ "b", "", ":and:f", "", "" }</tt></td></tr>
     
* <tr><td align=center>o</td>
     
*<td align=center>0</td>
     
*<td><tt>{ "b", "", ":and:f" }</tt></td></tr>
     
* </table></blockquote>
     
*
     
* <p> An invocation of this method of the form
     
* <i>str.</i><tt>split(</tt><i>regex</i><tt>,</tt>&nbsp;<i>n</i><tt>)</tt>
     
* yields the same result as the expression
     
*
     
* <blockquote>
     
*
 
.{@link java.util.regex.Pattern#compile
     
* compile}<tt>(</tt><i>regex</i><tt>)</tt>.{@link
     
* java.util.regex.Pattern#split(java.lang.CharSequence,int)
     
* split}<tt>(</tt><i>str</i><tt>,</tt>&nbsp;<i>n</i><tt>)</tt>
     
* </blockquote>
     
*
     
*
     
* @param
  
regex
     
*
         
the delimiting regular expression
     
*
     
* @param
  
limit
     
*
         
the result threshold, as described above
     
*
     
* @return
  
the array of strings computed by splitting this string
     
*
          
around matches of the given regular expression
     
*
     
* @throws
  
PatternSyntaxException
     
*
          
if the regular expression's syntax is invalid
     
*
     
*
 

     
*
     
* @since 1.4
     
* @spec JSR-51
     
*/

    
public String[] split(String regex, int limit) {
        
/* fastpath if the regex is a
         
(1)one-char String and this character is not one of the
            
RegEx's meta characters ".$|()[{^?*+\\", or
         
(2)two-char String and the first char is the backslash and
            
the second is not the ascii digit or ascii letter.
         
*/

        
char ch = 0;
        
if (((regex.value.length == 1 &&
             
".$|()[{^?*+\\".indexOf(ch = regex.charAt(0)) == -1) ||
             
(regex.length() == 2 &&
              
regex.charAt(0) == '\\' &&
              
(((ch = regex.charAt(1))-'0')|('9'-ch)) < 0 &&
              
((ch-'a')|('z'-ch)) < 0 &&
              
((ch-'A')|('Z'-ch)) < 0)) &&
            
(ch < Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE ||
             
ch > Character.MAX_LOW_SURROGATE))
        
{
            
int off = 0;
            
int next = 0;
            
boolean limited = limit > 0;
            
ArrayList<String> list = new ArrayList<>();
            
while ((next = indexOf(ch, off)) != -1) {
                
if (!limited || list.size() < limit - 1) {
                    
list.add(substring(off, next));
                    
off = next + 1;
                
} else {
    
// last one
                    
//assert (list.size() == limit - 1);
                    
list.add(substring(off, value.length));
                    
off = value.length;
                    
break;
                
}
            
}
            
// If no match was found, return this
            
if (off == 0)
                
return new String[]{this};

            
// Add remaining segment
            
if (!limited || list.size() < limit)
                
list.add(substring(off, value.length));

            
// Construct result
            
int resultSize = list.size();
            
if (limit == 0)
                
while (resultSize > 0 && list.get(resultSize - 1).length() == 0)
                    
resultSize--;
            
String[] result = new String[resultSize];
            
return list.subList(0, resultSize).toArray(result);
        
}
        
return Pattern.compile(regex).split(this, limit);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Splits this string around matches of the given <a
     
* href="../util/regex/Pattern.html#sum">regular expression</a>.
     
*
     
* <p> This method works as if by invoking the two-argument {@link
     
* #split(String, int) split} method with the given expression and a limit
     
* argument of zero.
  
Trailing empty strings are therefore not included in
     
* the resulting array.
     
*
     
* <p> The string <tt>"boo:and:foo"</tt>, for example, yields the following
     
* results with these expressions:
     
*
     
* <blockquote><table cellpadding=1 cellspacing=0 summary="Split examples showing regex and result">
     
* <tr>
     
*
  
<th>Regex</th>
     
*
  
<th>Result</th>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr><td align=center>:</td>
     
*<td><tt>{ "boo", "and", "foo" }</tt></td></tr>
     
* <tr><td align=center>o</td>
     
*<td><tt>{ "b", "", ":and:f" }</tt></td></tr>
     
* </table></blockquote>
     
*
     
*
     
* @param
  
regex
     
*
         
the delimiting regular expression
     
*
     
* @return
  
the array of strings computed by splitting this string
     
*
          
around matches of the given regular expression
     
*
     
* @throws
  
PatternSyntaxException
     
*
          
if the regular expression's syntax is invalid
     
*
     
*
 

     
*
     
* @since 1.4
     
* @spec JSR-51
     
*/

    
public String[] split(String regex) {
        
return split(regex, 0);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Converts all of the characters in this {@code String} to lower
     
* case using the rules of the given {@code Locale}.
  
Case mapping is based
     
* on the Unicode Standard version specified by the {@link java.lang.Character Character}
     
* class. Since case mappings are not always 1:1 char mappings, the resulting
     
* {@code String} may be a different length than the original {@code String}.
     
* <p>
     
* Examples of lowercase
  
mappings are in the following table:
     
* <table border="1" summary="Lowercase mapping examples showing language code of locale, upper case, lower case, and description">
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<th>Language Code of Locale</th>
     
*
   
<th>Upper Case</th>
     
*
   
<th>Lower Case</th>
     
*
   
<th>Description</th>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<td>tr (Turkish)</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u0130</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u0069</td>
     
*
   
<td>capital letter I with dot above -&gt; small letter i</td>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<td>tr (Turkish)</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u0049</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u0131</td>
     
*
   
<td>capital letter I -&gt; small letter dotless i </td>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<td>(all)</td>
     
*
   
<td>French Fries</td>
     
*
   
<td>french fries</td>
     
*
   
<td>lowercased all chars in String</td>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<td>(all)</td>
     
*
   
<td><img src="doc-files/capiota.gif" alt="capiota"><img src="doc-files/capchi.gif" alt="capchi">
     
*
       
<img src="doc-files/captheta.gif" alt="captheta"><img src="doc-files/capupsil.gif" alt="capupsil">
     
*
       
<img src="doc-files/capsigma.gif" alt="capsigma"></td>
     
*
   
<td><img src="doc-files/iota.gif" alt="iota"><img src="doc-files/chi.gif" alt="chi">
     
*
       
<img src="doc-files/theta.gif" alt="theta"><img src="doc-files/upsilon.gif" alt="upsilon">
     
*
       
<img src="doc-files/sigma1.gif" alt="sigma"></td>
     
*
   
<td>lowercased all chars in String</td>
     
* </tr>
     
* </table>
     
*
     
* @param locale use the case transformation rules for this locale
     
* @return the {@code String}, converted to lowercase.
     
* @seejava.lang.String#toLowerCase()
     
* @seejava.lang.String#toUpperCase()
     
* @seejava.lang.String#toUpperCase(Locale)
     
* @since
   
1.1
     
*/

    
public String toLowerCase(Locale locale) {
        
if (locale == null) {
            
throw new NullPointerException();
        
}

        
int firstUpper;
        
final int len = value.length;

        
/* Now check if there are any characters that need to be changed. */
        
scan: {
            
for (firstUpper = 0 ; firstUpper < len; ) {
                
char c = value[firstUpper];
                
if ((c >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE)
                        
&& (c <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE)) {
                    
int supplChar = codePointAt(firstUpper);
                    
if (supplChar != Character.toLowerCase(supplChar)) {
                        
break scan;
                    
}
                    
firstUpper += Character.charCount(supplChar);
                
} else {
                    
if (c != Character.toLowerCase(c)) {
                        
break scan;
                    
}
                    
firstUpper++;
                
}
            
}
            
return this;
        
}

        
char[] result = new char[len];
        
int resultOffset = 0;
  
/* result may grow, so i+resultOffset
                                
* is the write location in result */


        
/* Just copy the first few lowerCase characters. */
        
System.arraycopy(value, 0, result, 0, firstUpper);

        
String lang = locale.getLanguage();
        
boolean localeDependent =
                
(lang == "tr" || lang == "az" || lang == "lt");
        
char[] lowerCharArray;
        
int lowerChar;
        
int srcChar;
        
int srcCount;
        
for (int i = firstUpper; i < len; i += srcCount) {
            
srcChar = (int)value[i];
            
if ((char)srcChar >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE
                    
&& (char)srcChar <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE) {
                
srcChar = codePointAt(i);
                
srcCount = Character.charCount(srcChar);
            
} else {
                
srcCount = 1;
            
}
            
if (localeDependent ||
                
srcChar == '\u03A3' || // GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA
                
srcChar == '\u0130') { // LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH DOT ABOVE
                
lowerChar = ConditionalSpecialCasing.toLowerCaseEx(this, i, locale);
            
} else {
                
lowerChar = Character.toLowerCase(srcChar);
            
}
            
if ((lowerChar == Character.ERROR)
                    
|| (lowerChar >= Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT)) {
                
if (lowerChar == Character.ERROR) {
                    
lowerCharArray =
                            
ConditionalSpecialCasing.toLowerCaseCharArray(this, i, locale);
                
} else if (srcCount == 2) {
                    
resultOffset += Character.toChars(lowerChar, result, i + resultOffset) - srcCount;
                    
continue;
                
} else {
                    
lowerCharArray = Character.toChars(lowerChar);
                
}

                
/* Grow result if needed */
                
int mapLen = lowerCharArray.length;
                
if (mapLen > srcCount) {
                    
char[] result2 = new char[result.length + mapLen - srcCount];
                    
System.arraycopy(result, 0, result2, 0, i + resultOffset);
                    
result = result2;
                
}
                
for (int x = 0; x < mapLen; ++x) {
                    
result[i + resultOffset + x] = lowerCharArray[x];
                
}
                
resultOffset += (mapLen - srcCount);
            
} else {
                
result[i + resultOffset] = (char)lowerChar;
            
}
        
}
        
return new String(result, 0, len + resultOffset);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Converts all of the characters in this {@code String} to lower
     
* case using the rules of the default locale. This is equivalent to calling
     
* {@code toLowerCase(Locale.getDefault())}.
     
* <p>
     
* <b>Note:</b> This method is locale sensitive, and may produce unexpected
     
* results if used for strings that are intended to be interpreted locale
     
* independently.
     
* Examples are programming language identifiers, protocol keys, and HTML
     
* tags.
     
* For instance, {@code "TITLE".toLowerCase()} in a Turkish locale
     
* returns {@code "t\u005Cu0131tle"}, where '\u005Cu0131' is the
     
* LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS I character.
     
* To obtain correct results for locale insensitive strings, use
     
* {@code toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH)}.
     
* <p>
     
* @return
  
the {@code String}, converted to lowercase.
     
* @seejava.lang.String#toLowerCase(Locale)
     
*/

    
public String toLowerCase() {
        
return toLowerCase(Locale.getDefault());
    
}

    
/**
     
* Converts all of the characters in this {@code String} to upper
     
* case using the rules of the given {@code Locale}. Case mapping is based
     
* on the Unicode Standard version specified by the {@link java.lang.Character Character}
     
* class. Since case mappings are not always 1:1 char mappings, the resulting
     
* {@code String} may be a different length than the original {@code String}.
     
* <p>
     
* Examples of locale-sensitive and 1:M case mappings are in the following table.
     
*
     
* <table border="1" summary="Examples of locale-sensitive and 1:M case mappings. Shows Language code of locale, lower case, upper case, and description.">
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<th>Language Code of Locale</th>
     
*
   
<th>Lower Case</th>
     
*
   
<th>Upper Case</th>
     
*
   
<th>Description</th>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<td>tr (Turkish)</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u0069</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u0130</td>
     
*
   
<td>small letter i -&gt; capital letter I with dot above</td>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<td>tr (Turkish)</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u0131</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u0049</td>
     
*
   
<td>small letter dotless i -&gt; capital letter I</td>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<td>(all)</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u00df</td>
     
*
   
<td>&#92;u0053 &#92;u0053</td>
     
*
   
<td>small letter sharp s -&gt; two letters: SS</td>
     
* </tr>
     
* <tr>
     
*
   
<td>(all)</td>
     
*
   
<td>Fahrvergn&uuml;gen</td>
     
*
   
<td>FAHRVERGN&Uuml;GEN</td>
     
*
   
<td></td>
     
* </tr>
     
* </table>
     
* @param locale use the case transformation rules for this locale
     
* @return the {@code String}, converted to uppercase.
     
* @seejava.lang.String#toUpperCase()
     
* @seejava.lang.String#toLowerCase()
     
* @seejava.lang.String#toLowerCase(Locale)
     
* @since
   
1.1
     
*/

    
public String toUpperCase(Locale locale) {
        
if (locale == null) {
            
throw new NullPointerException();
        
}

        
int firstLower;
        
final int len = value.length;

        
/* Now check if there are any characters that need to be changed. */
        
scan: {
           
for (firstLower = 0 ; firstLower < len; ) {
                
int c = (int)value[firstLower];
                
int srcCount;
                
if ((c >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE)
                        
&& (c <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE)) {
                    
c = codePointAt(firstLower);
                    
srcCount = Character.charCount(c);
                
} else {
                    
srcCount = 1;
                
}
                
int upperCaseChar = Character.toUpperCaseEx(c);
                
if ((upperCaseChar == Character.ERROR)
                        
|| (c != upperCaseChar)) {
                    
break scan;
                
}
                
firstLower += srcCount;
            
}
            
return this;
        
}

        
char[] result = new char[len]; /* may grow */
        
int resultOffset = 0;
  
/* result may grow, so i+resultOffset
         
* is the write location in result */


        
/* Just copy the first few upperCase characters. */
        
System.arraycopy(value, 0, result, 0, firstLower);

        
String lang = locale.getLanguage();
        
boolean localeDependent =
                
(lang == "tr" || lang == "az" || lang == "lt");
        
char[] upperCharArray;
        
int upperChar;
        
int srcChar;
        
int srcCount;
        
for (int i = firstLower; i < len; i += srcCount) {
            
srcChar = (int)value[i];
            
if ((char)srcChar >= Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE &&
                
(char)srcChar <= Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE) {
                
srcChar = codePointAt(i);
                
srcCount = Character.charCount(srcChar);
            
} else {
                
srcCount = 1;
            
}
            
if (localeDependent) {
                
upperChar = ConditionalSpecialCasing.toUpperCaseEx(this, i, locale);
            
} else {
                
upperChar = Character.toUpperCaseEx(srcChar);
            
}
            
if ((upperChar == Character.ERROR)
                    
|| (upperChar >= Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT)) {
                
if (upperChar == Character.ERROR) {
                    
if (localeDependent) {
                        
upperCharArray =
                                
ConditionalSpecialCasing.toUpperCaseCharArray(this, i, locale);
                    
} else {
                        
upperCharArray = Character.toUpperCaseCharArray(srcChar);
                    
}
                
} else if (srcCount == 2) {
                    
resultOffset += Character.toChars(upperChar, result, i + resultOffset) - srcCount;
                    
continue;
                
} else {
                    
upperCharArray = Character.toChars(upperChar);
                
}

                
/* Grow result if needed */
                
int mapLen = upperCharArray.length;
                
if (mapLen > srcCount) {
                    
char[] result2 = new char[result.length + mapLen - srcCount];
                    
System.arraycopy(result, 0, result2, 0, i + resultOffset);
                    
result = result2;
                
}
                
for (int x = 0; x < mapLen; ++x) {
                    
result[i + resultOffset + x] = upperCharArray[x];
                
}
                
resultOffset += (mapLen - srcCount);
            
} else {
                
result[i + resultOffset] = (char)upperChar;
            
}
        
}
        
return new String(result, 0, len + resultOffset);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Converts all of the characters in this {@code String} to upper
     
* case using the rules of the default locale. This method is equivalent to
     
* {@code toUpperCase(Locale.getDefault())}.
     
* <p>
     
* <b>Note:</b> This method is locale sensitive, and may produce unexpected
     
* results if used for strings that are intended to be interpreted locale
     
* independently.
     
* Examples are programming language identifiers, protocol keys, and HTML
     
* tags.
     
* For instance, {@code "title".toUpperCase()} in a Turkish locale
     
* returns {@code "T\u005Cu0130TLE"}, where '\u005Cu0130' is the
     
* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH DOT ABOVE character.
     
* To obtain correct results for locale insensitive strings, use
     
* {@code toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH)}.
     
* <p>
     
* @return
  
the {@code String}, converted to uppercase.
     
* @seejava.lang.String#toUpperCase(Locale)
     
*/

    
public String toUpperCase() {
        
return toUpperCase(Locale.getDefault());
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a copy of the string, with leading and trailing whitespace
     
* omitted.
     
* <p>
     
* If this {@code String} object represents an empty character
     
* sequence, or the first and last characters of character sequence
     
* represented by this {@code String} object both have codes
     
* greater than {@code '\u005Cu0020'} (the space character), then a
     
* reference to this {@code String} object is returned.
     
* <p>
     
* Otherwise, if there is no character with a code greater than
     
* {@code '\u005Cu0020'} in the string, then a new
     
* {@code String} object representing an empty string is created
     
* and returned.
     
* <p>
     
* Otherwise, let <i>k</i> be the index of the first character in the
     
* string whose code is greater than {@code '\u005Cu0020'}, and let
     
* <i>m</i> be the index of the last character in the string whose code
     
* is greater than {@code '\u005Cu0020'}. A new {@code String}
     
* object is created, representing the substring of this string that
     
* begins with the character at index <i>k</i> and ends with the
     
* character at index <i>m</i>-that is, the result of
     
* <code>this.substring(<i>k</i>,&nbsp;<i>m</i>+1)</code>.
     
* <p>
     
* This method may be used to trim whitespace (as defined above) from
     
* the beginning and end of a string.
     
*
     
* @return
  
A copy of this string with leading and trailing white
     
*
          
space removed, or this string if it has no leading or
     
*
          
trailing white space.
     
*/

    
public String trim() {
        
int len = value.length;
        
int st = 0;
        
char[] val = value;
    
/* avoid getfield opcode */

        
while ((st < len) && (val[st] <= ' ')) {
            
st++;
        
}
        
while ((st < len) && (val[len - 1] <= ' ')) {
            
len--;
        
}
        
return ((st > 0) || (len < value.length)) ? substring(st, len) : this;
    
}

    
/**
     
* This object (which is already a string!) is itself returned.
     
*
     
* @return
  
the string itself.
     
*/

    
public String toString() {
        
return this;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Converts this string to a new character array.
     
*
     
* @return
  
a newly allocated character array whose length is the length
     
*
          
of this string and whose contents are initialized to contain
     
*
          
the character sequence represented by this string.
     
*/

    
public char[] toCharArray() {
        
// Cannot use Arrays.copyOf because of class initialization order issues
        
char result[] = new char[value.length];
        
System.arraycopy(value, 0, result, 0, value.length);
        
return result;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a formatted string using the specified format string and
     
* arguments.
     
*
     
* <p> The locale always used is the one returned by {@link
     
* java.util.Locale#getDefault() Locale.getDefault()}.
     
*
     
* @param
  
format
     
*
         
A
 
<a href="../util/Formatter.html#syntax">format string</a>
     
*
     
* @param
  
args
     
*
         
Arguments referenced by the format specifiers in the format
     
*
         
string.
  
If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the
     
*
         
extra arguments are ignored.
  
The number of arguments is
     
*
         
variable and may be zero.
  
The maximum number of arguments is
     
*
         
limited by the maximum dimension of a Java array as defined by
     
*
         
<cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>.
     
*
         
The behaviour on a
     
*
         
<tt>null</tt> argument depends on the <a
     
*
         
href="../util/Formatter.html#syntax">conversion</a>.
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IllegalFormatException
     
*
          
If a format string contains an illegal syntax, a format
     
*
          
specifier that is incompatible with the given arguments,
     
*
          
insufficient arguments given the format string, or other
     
*
          
illegal conditions.
  
For specification of all possible
     
*
          
formatting errors, see the <a
     
*
          
href="../util/Formatter.html#detail">Details</a> section of the
     
*
          
formatter class specification.
     
*
     
* @throws
  
NullPointerException
     
*
          
If the <tt>format</tt> is <tt>null</tt>
     
*
     
* @return
  
A formatted string
     
*
     
* @see
  
java.util.Formatter
     
* @since
  
1.5
     
*/

    
public static String format(String format, Object... args) {
        
return new Formatter().format(format, args).toString();
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a formatted string using the specified locale, format string,
     
* and arguments.
     
*
     
* @param
  
l
     
*
         
The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
     
*
         
formatting.
  
If <tt>l</tt> is <tt>null</tt> then no localization
     
*
         
is applied.
     
*
     
* @param
  
format
     
*
         
A
 
<a href="../util/Formatter.html#syntax">format string</a>
     
*
     
* @param
  
args
     
*
         
Arguments referenced by the format specifiers in the format
     
*
         
string.
  
If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the
     
*
         
extra arguments are ignored.
  
The number of arguments is
     
*
         
variable and may be zero.
  
The maximum number of arguments is
     
*
         
limited by the maximum dimension of a Java array as defined by
     
*
         
<cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>.
     
*
         
The behaviour on a
     
*
         
<tt>null</tt> argument depends on the <a
     
*
         
href="../util/Formatter.html#syntax">conversion</a>.
     
*
     
* @throws
  
IllegalFormatException
     
*
          
If a format string contains an illegal syntax, a format
     
*
          
specifier that is incompatible with the given arguments,
     
*
          
insufficient arguments given the format string, or other
     
*
          
illegal conditions.
  
For specification of all possible
     
*
          
formatting errors, see the <a
     
*
          
href="../util/Formatter.html#detail">Details</a> section of the
     
*
          
formatter class specification
     
*
     
* @throws
  
NullPointerException
     
*
          
If the <tt>format</tt> is <tt>null</tt>
     
*
     
* @return
  
A formatted string
     
*
     
* @see
  
java.util.Formatter
     
* @since
  
1.5
     
*/

    
public static String format(Locale l, String format, Object... args) {
        
return new Formatter(l).format(format, args).toString();
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the string representation of the {@code Object} argument.
     
*
     
* @param
   
objan {@code Object}.
     
* @return
  
if the argument is {@code null}, then a string equal to
     
*
          
{@code "null"}; otherwise, the value of
     
*
          
{@code obj.toString()} is returned.
     
* @seejava.lang.Object#toString()
     
*/

    
public static String valueOf(Object obj) {
        
return (obj == null) ? "null" : obj.toString();
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the string representation of the {@code char} array
     
* argument. The contents of the character array are copied; subsequent
     
* modification of the character array does not affect the newly
     
* created string.
     
*
     
* @param
   
dataa {@code char} array.
     
* @return
  
a newly allocated string representing the same sequence of
     
*
          
characters contained in the character array argument.
     
*/

    
public static String valueOf(char data[]) {
        
return new String(data);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the string representation of a specific subarray of the
     
* {@code char} array argument.
     
* <p>
     
* The {@code offset} argument is the index of the first
     
* character of the subarray. The {@code count} argument
     
* specifies the length of the subarray. The contents of the subarray
     
* are copied; subsequent modification of the character array does not
     
* affect the newly created string.
     
*
     
* @param
   
datathe character array.
     
* @param
   
offsetthe initial offset into the value of the
     
*
                  
{@code String}.
     
* @param
   
count
    
the length of the value of the {@code String}.
     
* @return
  
a string representing the sequence of characters contained
     
*
          
in the subarray of the character array argument.
     
* @exception IndexOutOfBoundsException if {@code offset} is
     
*
          
negative, or {@code count} is negative, or
     
*
          
{@code offset+count} is larger than
     
*
          
{@code data.length}.
     
*/

    
public static String valueOf(char data[], int offset, int count) {
        
return new String(data, offset, count);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a String that represents the character sequence in the
     
* array specified.
     
*
     
* @param
   
datathe character array.
     
* @param
   
offsetinitial offset of the subarray.
     
* @param
   
count
    
length of the subarray.
     
* @return
  
a {@code String} that contains the characters of the
     
*
          
specified subarray of the character array.
     
*/

    
public static String copyValueOf(char data[], int offset, int count) {
        
// All public String constructors now copy the data.
        
return new String(data, offset, count);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a String that represents the character sequence in the
     
* array specified.
     
*
     
* @param
   
datathe character array.
     
* @return
  
a {@code String} that contains the characters of the
     
*
          
character array.
     
*/

    
public static String copyValueOf(char data[]) {
        
return new String(data);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the string representation of the {@code boolean} argument.
     
*
     
* @param
   
ba {@code boolean}.
     
* @return
  
if the argument is {@code true}, a string equal to
     
*
          
{@code "true"} is returned; otherwise, a string equal to
     
*
          
{@code "false"} is returned.
     
*/

    
public static String valueOf(boolean b) {
        
return b ? "true" : "false";
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the string representation of the {@code char}
     
* argument.
     
*
     
* @param
   
ca {@code char}.
     
* @return
  
a string of length {@code 1} containing
     
*
          
as its single character the argument {@code c}.
     
*/

    
public static String valueOf(char c) {
        
char data[] = {c};
        
return new String(data, true);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the string representation of the {@code int} argument.
     
* <p>
     
* The representation is exactly the one returned by the
     
* {@code Integer.toString} method of one argument.
     
*
     
* @param
   
ian {@code int}.
     
* @return
  
a string representation of the {@code int} argument.
     
* @seejava.lang.Integer#toString(int, int)
     
*/

    
public static String valueOf(int i) {
        
return Integer.toString(i);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the string representation of the {@code long} argument.
     
* <p>
     
* The representation is exactly the one returned by the
     
* {@code Long.toString} method of one argument.
     
*
     
* @param
   
la {@code long}.
     
* @return
  
a string representation of the {@code long} argument.
     
* @seejava.lang.Long#toString(long)
     
*/

    
public static String valueOf(long l) {
        
return Long.toString(l);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the string representation of the {@code float} argument.
     
* <p>
     
* The representation is exactly the one returned by the
     
* {@code Float.toString} method of one argument.
     
*
     
* @param
   
fa {@code float}.
     
* @return
  
a string representation of the {@code float} argument.
     
* @seejava.lang.Float#toString(float)
     
*/

    
public static String valueOf(float f) {
        
return Float.toString(f);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the string representation of the {@code double} argument.
     
* <p>
     
* The representation is exactly the one returned by the
     
* {@code Double.toString} method of one argument.
     
*
     
* @param
   
da {@code double}.
     
* @return
  
astring representation of the {@code double} argument.
     
* @seejava.lang.Double#toString(double)
     
*/

    
public static String valueOf(double d) {
        
return Double.toString(d);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns a canonical representation for the string object.
     
* <p>
     
* A pool of strings, initially empty, is maintained privately by the
     
* class {@code String}.
     
* <p>
     
* When the intern method is invoked, if the pool already contains a
     
* string equal to this {@code String} object as determined by
     
* the {@link #equals(Object)} method, then the string from the pool is
     
* returned. Otherwise, this {@code String} object is added to the
     
* pool and a reference to this {@code String} object is returned.
     
* <p>
     
* It follows that for any two strings {@code s} and {@code t},
     
* {@code s.intern() == t.intern()} is {@code true}
     
* if and only if {@code s.equals(t)} is {@code true}.
     
* <p>
     
* All literal strings and string-valued constant expressions are
     
* interned. String literals are defined in section 3.10.5 of the
     
* <cite>The Java&trade; Language Specification</cite>.
     
*
     
* @return
  
a string that has the same contents as this string, but is
     
*
          
guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings.
     
*/

    
public native String intern();

    
/**
     
* Seed value used for each alternative hash calculated.
     
*/
    
private static final int HASHING_SEED;

    
static {
        
long nanos = System.nanoTime();
        
long now = System.currentTimeMillis();
        
int SEED_MATERIAL[] = {
                
System.identityHashCode(String.class),
                
System.identityHashCode(System.class),
                
(int) (nanos >>> 32),
                
(int) nanos,
                
(int) (now >>> 32),
                
(int) now,
                
(int) (System.nanoTime() >>> 2)
        
};

        
// Use murmur3 to scramble the seeding material.
        
// Inline implementation to avoid loading classes
        
int h1 = 0;

        
// body
        
for (int k1 : SEED_MATERIAL) {
            
k1 *= 0xcc9e2d51;
            
k1 = (k1 << 15) | (k1 >>> 17);
            
k1 *= 0x1b873593;

            
h1 ^= k1;
            
h1 = (h1 << 13) | (h1 >>> 19);
            
h1 = h1 * 5 + 0xe6546b64;
        
}

        
// tail (always empty, as body is always 32-bit chunks)

        
// finalization

        
h1 ^= SEED_MATERIAL.length * 4;

        
// finalization mix force all bits of a hash block to avalanche
        
h1 ^= h1 >>> 16;
        
h1 *= 0x85ebca6b;
        
h1 ^= h1 >>> 13;
        
h1 *= 0xc2b2ae35;
        
h1 ^= h1 >>> 16;

        
HASHING_SEED = h1;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Cached value of the alternative hashing algorithm result
     
*/

    
private transient int hash32 = 0;

    
/**
     
* Calculates a 32-bit hash value for this string.
     
*
     
* @return a 32-bit hash value for this string.
     
*/

    
int hash32() {
        
int h = hash32;
        
if (0 == h) {
           
// harmless data race on hash32 here.
           
h = sun.misc.Hashing.murmur3_32(HASHING_SEED, value, 0, value.length);

           
// ensure result is not zero to avoid recalcing
           
h = (0 != h) ? h : 1;

           
hash32 = h;
        
}

        
return h;
    
}

}