/*
 
* Copyright (c) 2003, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
* DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 
*
 
* This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 
* under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 
* published by the Free Software Foundation.
  
Oracle designates this
 
* particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
 
* by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
 
*
 
* This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 
* ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
  
See the GNU General Public License
 
* version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 
* accompanied this code).
 
*
 
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 
* 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 
* Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 
*
 
* Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 
* or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 
* questions.
 
*/

package java.util;

import java.io.BufferedWriter;
import java.io.Closeable;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.Flushable;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
import java.io.PrintStream;
import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import java.math.BigInteger;
import java.math.MathContext;
import java.math.RoundingMode;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.nio.charset.IllegalCharsetNameException;
import java.nio.charset.UnsupportedCharsetException;
import java.text.DateFormatSymbols;
import java.text.DecimalFormat;
import java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols;
import java.text.NumberFormat;
import java.util.regex.Matcher;
import java.util.regex.Pattern;

import java.time.DateTimeException;
import java.time.Instant;
import java.time.ZoneId;
import java.time.ZoneOffset;
import java.time.temporal.ChronoField;
import java.time.temporal.TemporalAccessor;
import java.time.temporal.TemporalQueries;

import sun.misc.DoubleConsts;
import sun.misc.FormattedFloatingDecimal;

/**
 
* An interpreter for printf-style format strings.
  
This class provides support
 
* for layout justification and alignment, common formats for numeric, string,
 
* and date/time data, and locale-specific output.
  
Common Java types such as
 
* {@code byte}, {@link java.math.BigDecimal BigDecimal}, and {@link Calendar}
 
* are supported.
  
Limited formatting customization for arbitrary user types is
 
* provided through the {@link Formattable} interface.
 
*
 
* <p> Formatters are not necessarily safe for multithreaded access.
  
Thread
 
* safety is optional and is the responsibility of users of methods in this
 
* class.
 
*
 
* <p> Formatted printing for the Java language is heavily inspired by C's
 
* {@code printf}.
  
Although the format strings are similar to C, some
 
* customizations have been made to accommodate the Java language and exploit
 
* some of its features.
  
Also, Java formatting is more strict than C's; for
 
* example, if a conversion is incompatible with a flag, an exception will be
 
* thrown.
  
In C inapplicable flags are silently ignored.The format strings
 
* are thus intended to be recognizable to C programmers but not necessarily
 
* completely compatible with those in C.
 
*
 
* <p> Examples of expected usage:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
 
*
   
// Send all output to the Appendable object sb
 
*
   
Formatter formatter = new Formatter(sb, Locale.US);
 
*
 
*
   
// Explicit argument indices may be used to re-order output.
 
*
   
formatter.format("%4$2s %3$2s %2$2s %1$2s", "a", "b", "c", "d")
 
*
   
// -&gt; " d
  
cba"
 
*
 
*
   
// Optional locale as the first argument can be used to get
 
*
   
// locale-specific formatting of numbers.
  
The precision and width can be
 
*
   
// given to round and align the value.
 
*
   
formatter.format(Locale.FRANCE, "e = %+10.4f", Math.E);
 
*
   
// -&gt; "e =
    
+2,7183"
 
*
 
*
   
// The '(' numeric flag may be used to format negative numbers with
 
*
   
// parentheses rather than a minus sign.
  
Group separators are
 
*
   
// automatically inserted.
 
*
   
formatter.format("Amount gained or lost since last statement: $ %(,.2f",
 
*
                    
balanceDelta);
 
*
   
// -&gt; "Amount gained or lost since last statement: $ (6,217.58)"
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <p> Convenience methods for common formatting requests exist as illustrated
 
* by the following invocations:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
// Writes a formatted string to System.out.
 
*
   
System.out.format("Local time: %tT", Calendar.getInstance());
 
*
   
// -&gt; "Local time: 13:34:18"
 
*
 
*
   
// Writes formatted output to System.err.
 
*
   
System.err.printf("Unable to open file '%1$s': %2$s",
 
*
                     
fileName, exception.getMessage());
 
*
   
// -&gt; "Unable to open file 'food': No such file or directory"
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <p> Like C's {@code sprintf(3)}, Strings may be formatted using the static
 
* method {@link String#format(String,Object...) String.format}:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
// Format a string containing a date.
 
*
   
import java.util.Calendar;
 
*
   
import java.util.GregorianCalendar;
 
*
   
import static java.util.Calendar.*;
 
*
 
*
   
Calendar c = new GregorianCalendar(1995, MAY, 23);
 
*
   
String s = String.format("Duke's Birthday: %1$tb %1$te, %1$tY", c);
 
*
   
// -&gt; s == "Duke's Birthday: May 23, 1995"
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <h3><a name="org">Organization</a></h3>
 
*
 
* <p> This specification is divided into two sections.
  
The first section, <a
 
* href="#summary">Summary</a>, covers the basic formatting concepts.
  
This
 
* section is intended for users who want to get started quickly and are
 
* familiar with formatted printing in other programming languages.
  
The second
 
* section,<a href="#detail">Details</a>, covers the specific implementation
 
* details.
  
It is intended for users who want more precise specification of
 
* formatting behavior.
 
*
 
* <h3><a name="summary">Summary</a></h3>
 
*
 
* <p> This section is intended to provide a brief overview of formatting
 
* concepts.
  
For precise behavioral details, refer to the <a
 
* href="#detail">Details</a> section.
 
*
 
* <h4><a name="syntax">Format String Syntax</a></h4>
 
*
 
* <p> Every method which produces formatted output requires a <i>format
 
* string</i> and an <i>argument list</i>.
  
The format string is a {@link
 
* String} which may contain fixed text and one or more embedded <i>format
 
* specifiers</i>.
  
Consider the following example:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
Calendar c = ...;
 
*
   
String s = String.format("Duke's Birthday: %1$tm %1$te,%1$tY", c);
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* This format string is the first argument to the {@code format} method.
  
It
 
* contains three format specifiers "{@code %1$tm}", "{@code %1$te}", and
 
* "{@code %1$tY}" which indicate how the arguments should be processed and
 
* where they should be inserted in the text.
  
The remaining portions of the
 
* format string are fixed text including {@code "Dukes Birthday: "} and any
 
* other spaces or punctuation.
 
*
 
* The argument list consists of all arguments passed to the method after the
 
* format string.
  
In the above example, the argument list is of size one and
 
* consists of the {@link java.util.Calendar Calendar} object {@code c}.
 
*
 
* <ul>
 
*
 
* <li> The format specifiers for general, character, and numeric types have
 
* the following syntax:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
%[argument_index$][flags][width][.precision]conversion
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <p> The optional <i>argument_index</i> is a decimal integer indicating the
 
* position of the argument in the argument list.
  
The first argument is
 
* referenced by "{@code 1$}", the second by "{@code 2$}", etc.
 
*
 
* <p> The optional <i>flags</i> is a set of characters that modify the output
 
* format.
  
The set of valid flags depends on the conversion.
 
*
 
* <p> The optional <i>width</i> is a positive decimal integer indicating
 
* the minimum number of characters to be written to the output.
 
*
 
* <p> The optional <i>precision</i> is a non-negative decimal integer usually
 
* used to restrict the number of characters.
  
The specific behavior depends on
 
* the conversion.
 
*
 
* <p> The required <i>conversion</i> is a character indicating how the
 
* argument should be formatted.
  
The set of valid conversions for a given
 
* argument depends on the argument's data type.
 
*
 
* <li> The format specifiers for types which are used to represents dates and
 
* times have the following syntax:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
%[argument_index$][flags][width]conversion
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <p> The optional <i>argument_index</i>, <i>flags</i> and <i>width</i> are
 
* defined as above.
 
*
 
* <p> The required <i>conversion</i> is a two character sequence.
  
The first
 
* character is {@code 't'} or {@code 'T'}.
  
The second character indicates
 
* the format to be used.
  
These characters are similar to but not completely
 
* identical to those defined by GNU {@code date} and POSIX
 
* {@code strftime(3c)}.
 
*
 
* <li> The format specifiers which do not correspond to arguments have the
 
* following syntax:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
%[flags][width]conversion
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <p> The optional <i>flags</i> and <i>width</i> is defined as above.
 
*
 
* <p> The required <i>conversion</i> is a character indicating content to be
 
* inserted in the output.
 
*
 
* </ul>
 
*
 
* <h4> Conversions </h4>
 
*
 
* <p> Conversions are divided into the following categories:
 
*
 
* <ol>
 
*
 
* <li> <b>General</b> - may be applied to any argument
 
* type
 
*
 
* <li> <b>Character</b> - may be applied to basic types which represent
 
* Unicode characters: {@code char}, {@link Character}, {@code byte}, {@link
 
* Byte}, {@code short}, and {@link Short}. This conversion may also be
 
* applied to the types {@code int} and {@link Integer} when {@link
 
* Character#isValidCodePoint} returns {@code true}
 
*
 
* <li> <b>Numeric</b>
 
*
 
* <ol>
 
*
 
* <li> <b>Integral</b> - may be applied to Java integral types: {@code byte},
 
* {@link Byte}, {@code short}, {@link Short}, {@code int} and {@link
 
* Integer}, {@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link java.math.BigInteger
 
* BigInteger} (but not {@code char} or {@link Character})
 
*
 
* <li><b>Floating Point</b> - may be applied to Java floating-point types:
 
* {@code float}, {@link Float}, {@code double}, {@link Double}, and {@link
 
* java.math.BigDecimal BigDecimal}
 
*
 
* </ol>
 
*
 
* <li> <b>Date/Time</b> - may be applied to Java types which are capable of
 
* encoding a date or time: {@code long}, {@link Long}, {@link Calendar},
 
* {@link Date} and {@link TemporalAccessor TemporalAccessor}
 
*
 
* <li> <b>Percent</b> - produces a literal {@code '%'}
 
* (<tt>'&#92;u0025'</tt>)
 
*
 
* <li> <b>Line Separator</b> - produces the platform-specific line separator
 
*
 
* </ol>
 
*
 
* <p> The following table summarizes the supported conversions.
  
Conversions
 
* denoted by an upper-case character (i.e. {@code 'B'}, {@code 'H'},
 
* {@code 'S'}, {@code 'C'}, {@code 'X'}, {@code 'E'}, {@code 'G'},
 
* {@code 'A'}, and {@code 'T'}) are the same as those for the corresponding
 
* lower-case conversion characters except that the result is converted to
 
* upper case according to the rules of the prevailing {@link java.util.Locale
 
* Locale}.
  
The result is equivalent to the following invocation of {@link
 
* String#toUpperCase()}
 
*
 
* <pre>
 
*
    
out.toUpperCase() </pre>
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="genConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><th valign="bottom"> Conversion
 
*
     
<th valign="bottom"> Argument Category
 
*
     
<th valign="bottom"> Description
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'b'}, {@code 'B'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> general
 
*
     
<td> If the argument <i>arg</i> is {@code null}, then the result is
 
*
     
"{@code false}".
  
If <i>arg</i> is a {@code boolean} or {@link
 
*
     
Boolean}, then the result is the string returned by {@link
 
*
     
String#valueOf(boolean) String.valueOf(arg)}.
  
Otherwise, the result is
 
*
     
"true".
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'h'}, {@code 'H'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> general
 
*
     
<td> If the argument <i>arg</i> is {@code null}, then the result is
 
*
     
"{@code null}".
  
Otherwise, the result is obtained by invoking
 
*
     
{@code Integer.toHexString(arg.hashCode())}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 's'}, {@code 'S'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> general
 
*
     
<td> If the argument <i>arg</i> is {@code null}, then the result is
 
*
     
"{@code null}".
  
If <i>arg</i> implements {@link Formattable}, then
 
*
     
{@link Formattable#formatTo arg.formatTo} is invoked. Otherwise, the
 
*
     
result is obtained by invoking {@code arg.toString()}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'c'}, {@code 'C'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> character
 
*
     
<td> The result is a Unicode character
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'd'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> integral
 
*
     
<td> The result is formatted as a decimal integer
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'o'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> integral
 
*
     
<td> The result is formatted as an octal integer
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'x'}, {@code 'X'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> integral
 
*
     
<td> The result is formatted as a hexadecimal integer
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'e'}, {@code 'E'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> floating point
 
*
     
<td> The result is formatted as a decimal number in computerized
 
*
     
scientific notation
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'f'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> floating point
 
*
     
<td> The result is formatted as a decimal number
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'g'}, {@code 'G'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> floating point
 
*
     
<td> The result is formatted using computerized scientific notation or
 
*
     
decimal format, depending on the precision and the value after rounding.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'a'}, {@code 'A'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> floating point
 
*
     
<td> The result is formatted as a hexadecimal floating-point number with
 
*
     
a significand and an exponent. This conversion is <b>not</b> supported
 
*
     
for the {@code BigDecimal} type despite the latter's being in the
 
*
     
<i>floating point</i> argument category.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 't'}, {@code 'T'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> date/time
 
*
     
<td> Prefix for date and time conversion characters.
  
See <a
 
*
     
href="#dt">Date/Time Conversions</a>.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code '%'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> percent
 
*
     
<td> The result is a literal {@code '%'} (<tt>'&#92;u0025'</tt>)
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'n'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> line separator
 
*
     
<td> The result is the platform-specific line separator
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> Any characters not explicitly defined as conversions are illegal and are
 
* reserved for future extensions.
 
*
 
* <h4><a name="dt">Date/Time Conversions</a></h4>
 
*
 
* <p> The following date and time conversion suffix characters are defined for
 
* the {@code 't'} and {@code 'T'} conversions.
  
The types are similar to but
 
* not completely identical to those defined by GNU {@code date} and POSIX
 
* {@code strftime(3c)}.
  
Additional conversion types are provided to access
 
* Java-specific functionality (e.g. {@code 'L'} for milliseconds within the
 
* second).
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting times:
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="time">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'H'}
 
*
     
<td> Hour of the day for the 24-hour clock, formatted as two digits with
 
*
     
a leading zero as necessary i.e. {@code 00 - 23}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'I'}
 
*
     
<td> Hour for the 12-hour clock, formatted as two digits with a leading
 
*
     
zero as necessary, i.e.
  
{@code 01 - 12}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'k'}
 
*
     
<td> Hour of the day for the 24-hour clock, i.e. {@code 0 - 23}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'l'}
 
*
     
<td> Hour for the 12-hour clock, i.e. {@code 1 - 12}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'M'}
 
*
     
<td> Minute within the hour formatted as two digits with a leading zero
 
*
     
as necessary, i.e.
  
{@code 00 - 59}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'S'}
 
*
     
<td> Seconds within the minute, formatted as two digits with a leading
 
*
     
zero as necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 60} ("{@code 60}" is a special
 
*
     
value required to support leap seconds).
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'L'}
 
*
     
<td> Millisecond within the second formatted as three digits with
 
*
     
leading zeros as necessary, i.e. {@code 000 - 999}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'N'}
 
*
     
<td> Nanosecond within the second, formatted as nine digits with leading
 
*
     
zeros as necessary, i.e. {@code 000000000 - 999999999}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'p'}
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getAmPmStrings morning or afternoon} marker
 
*
     
in lower case, e.g."{@code am}" or "{@code pm}". Use of the conversion
 
*
     
prefix {@code 'T'} forces this output to upper case.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'z'}
 
*
     
<td><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0822.txt">RFC&nbsp;822</a>
 
*
     
style numeric time zone offset from GMT, e.g. {@code -0800}.
  
This
 
*
     
value will be adjusted as necessary for Daylight Saving Time.
  
For
 
*
     
{@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link Date} the time zone used is
 
*
     
the {@linkplain TimeZone#getDefault() default time zone} for this
 
*
     
instance of the Java virtual machine.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Z'}
 
*
     
<td> A string representing the abbreviation for the time zone.
  
This
 
*
     
value will be adjusted as necessary for Daylight Saving Time.
  
For
 
*
     
{@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link Date} the
  
time zone used is
 
*
     
the {@linkplain TimeZone#getDefault() default time zone} for this
 
*
     
instance of the Java virtual machine.
  
The Formatter's locale will
 
*
     
supersede the locale of the argument (if any).
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 's'}
 
*
     
<td> Seconds since the beginning of the epoch starting at 1 January 1970
 
*
     
{@code 00:00:00} UTC, i.e. {@code Long.MIN_VALUE/1000} to
 
*
     
{@code Long.MAX_VALUE/1000}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Q'}
 
*
     
<td> Milliseconds since the beginning of the epoch starting at 1 January
 
*
     
1970 {@code 00:00:00} UTC, i.e. {@code Long.MIN_VALUE} to
 
*
     
{@code Long.MAX_VALUE}.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting dates:
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="date">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'B'}
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific {@linkplain java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getMonths
 
*
     
full month name}, e.g. {@code "January"}, {@code "February"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'b'}
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getShortMonths abbreviated month name},
 
*
     
e.g. {@code "Jan"}, {@code "Feb"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'h'}
 
*
     
<td> Same as {@code 'b'}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'A'}
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific full name of the {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getWeekdays day of the week},
 
*
     
e.g. {@code "Sunday"}, {@code "Monday"}
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'a'}
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific short name of the {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getShortWeekdays day of the week},
 
*
     
e.g. {@code "Sun"}, {@code "Mon"}
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'C'}
 
*
     
<td> Four-digit year divided by {@code 100}, formatted as two digits
 
*
     
with leading zero as necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 99}
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Y'}
 
*
     
<td> Year, formatted as at least four digits with leading zeros as
 
*
     
necessary, e.g. {@code 0092} equals {@code 92} CE for the Gregorian
 
*
     
calendar.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'y'}
 
*
     
<td> Last two digits of the year, formatted with leading zeros as
 
*
     
necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 99}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'j'}
 
*
     
<td> Day of year, formatted as three digits with leading zeros as
 
*
     
necessary, e.g. {@code 001 - 366} for the Gregorian calendar.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'm'}
 
*
     
<td> Month, formatted as two digits with leading zeros as necessary,
 
*
     
i.e. {@code 01 - 13}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'd'}
 
*
     
<td> Day of month, formatted as two digits with leading zeros as
 
*
     
necessary, i.e. {@code 01 - 31}
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'e'}
 
*
     
<td> Day of month, formatted as two digits, i.e. {@code 1 - 31}.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting common
 
* date/time compositions.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="composites">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'R'}
 
*
     
<td> Time formatted for the 24-hour clock as {@code "%tH:%tM"}
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'T'}
 
*
     
<td> Time formatted for the 24-hour clock as {@code "%tH:%tM:%tS"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'r'}
 
*
     
<td> Time formatted for the 12-hour clock as {@code "%tI:%tM:%tS %Tp"}.
 
*
     
The location of the morning or afternoon marker ({@code '%Tp'}) may be
 
*
     
locale-dependent.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'D'}
 
*
     
<td> Date formatted as {@code "%tm/%td/%ty"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'F'}
 
*
     
<td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime">ISO&nbsp;8601</a>
 
*
     
complete date formatted as {@code "%tY-%tm-%td"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'c'}
 
*
     
<td> Date and time formatted as {@code "%ta %tb %td %tT %tZ %tY"},
 
*
     
e.g. {@code "Sun Jul 20 16:17:00 EDT 1969"}.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> Any characters not explicitly defined as date/time conversion suffixes
 
* are illegal and are reserved for future extensions.
 
*
 
* <h4> Flags </h4>
 
*
 
* <p> The following table summarizes the supported flags.
  
<i>y</i> means the
 
* flag is supported for the indicated argument types.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="genConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><th valign="bottom"> Flag <th valign="bottom"> General
 
*
     
<th valign="bottom"> Character <th valign="bottom"> Integral
 
*
     
<th valign="bottom"> Floating Point
 
*
     
<th valign="bottom"> Date/Time
 
*
     
<th valign="bottom"> Description
 
*
 
* <tr><td> '-' <td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td> The result will be left-justified.
 
*
 
* <tr><td> '#' <td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>1</sup>
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>3</sup>
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td> The result should use a conversion-dependent alternate form
 
*
 
* <tr><td> '+' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>4</sup>
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td> The result will always include a sign
 
*
 
* <tr><td> '&nbsp;&nbsp;' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>4</sup>
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td> The result will include a leading space for positive values
 
*
 
* <tr><td> '0' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td> The result will be zero-padded
 
*
 
* <tr><td> ',' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>2</sup>
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>5</sup>
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td> The result will include locale-specific {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getGroupingSeparator grouping separators}
 
*
 
* <tr><td> '(' <td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> -
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>4</sup>
 
*
     
<td align="center" valign="top"> y<sup>5</sup>
 
*
     
<td align="center"> -
 
*
     
<td> The result will enclose negative numbers in parentheses
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> <sup>1</sup> Depends on the definition of {@link Formattable}.
 
*
 
* <p> <sup>2</sup> For {@code 'd'} conversion only.
 
*
 
* <p> <sup>3</sup> For {@code 'o'}, {@code 'x'}, and {@code 'X'}
 
* conversions only.
 
*
 
* <p> <sup>4</sup> For {@code 'd'}, {@code 'o'}, {@code 'x'}, and
 
* {@code 'X'} conversions applied to {@link java.math.BigInteger BigInteger}
 
* or {@code 'd'} applied to {@code byte}, {@link Byte}, {@code short}, {@link
 
* Short}, {@code int} and {@link Integer}, {@code long}, and {@link Long}.
 
*
 
* <p> <sup>5</sup> For {@code 'e'}, {@code 'E'}, {@code 'f'},
 
* {@code 'g'}, and {@code 'G'} conversions only.
 
*
 
* <p> Any characters not explicitly defined as flags are illegal and are
 
* reserved for future extensions.
 
*
 
* <h4> Width </h4>
 
*
 
* <p> The width is the minimum number of characters to be written to the
 
* output.
  
For the line separator conversion, width is not applicable; if it
 
* is provided, an exception will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <h4> Precision </h4>
 
*
 
* <p> For general argument types, the precision is the maximum number of
 
* characters to be written to the output.
 
*
 
* <p> For the floating-point conversions {@code 'a'}, {@code 'A'}, {@code 'e'},
 
* {@code 'E'}, and {@code 'f'} the precision is the number of digits after the
 
* radix point.
  
If the conversion is {@code 'g'} or {@code 'G'}, then the
 
* precision is the total number of digits in the resulting magnitude after
 
* rounding.
 
*
 
* <p> For character, integral, and date/time argument types and the percent
 
* and line separator conversions, the precision is not applicable; if a
 
* precision is provided, an exception will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <h4> Argument Index </h4>
 
*
 
* <p> The argument index is a decimal integer indicating the position of the
 
* argument in the argument list.
  
The first argument is referenced by
 
* "{@code 1$}", the second by "{@code 2$}", etc.
 
*
 
* <p> Another way to reference arguments by position is to use the
 
* {@code '<'} (<tt>'&#92;u003c'</tt>) flag, which causes the argument for
 
* the previous format specifier to be re-used.
  
For example, the following two
 
* statements would produce identical strings:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
Calendar c = ...;
 
*
   
String s1 = String.format("Duke's Birthday: %1$tm %1$te,%1$tY", c);
 
*
 
*
   
String s2 = String.format("Duke's Birthday: %1$tm %&lt;te,%&lt;tY", c);
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <hr>
 
* <h3><a name="detail">Details</a></h3>
 
*
 
* <p> This section is intended to provide behavioral details for formatting,
 
* including conditions and exceptions, supported data types, localization, and
 
* interactions between flags, conversions, and data types.
  
For an overview of
 
* formatting concepts, refer to the<a href="#summary">Summary</a>
 
*
 
* <p> Any characters not explicitly defined as conversions, date/time
 
* conversion suffixes, or flags are illegal and are reserved for
 
* future extensions.
  
Use of such a character in a format string will
 
* cause an {@link UnknownFormatConversionException} or {@link
 
* UnknownFormatFlagsException} to be thrown.
 
*
 
* <p> If the format specifier contains a width or precision with an invalid
 
* value or which is otherwise unsupported, then a {@link
 
* IllegalFormatWidthException} or {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException}
 
* respectively will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <p> If a format specifier contains a conversion character that is not
 
* applicable to the corresponding argument, then an {@link
 
* IllegalFormatConversionException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <p> All specified exceptions may be thrown by any of the {@code format}
 
* methods of {@code Formatter} as well as by any {@code format} convenience
 
* methods such as {@link String#format(String,Object...) String.format} and
 
* {@link java.io.PrintStream#printf(String,Object...) PrintStream.printf}.
 
*
 
* <p> Conversions denoted by an upper-case character (i.e. {@code 'B'},
 
* {@code 'H'}, {@code 'S'}, {@code 'C'}, {@code 'X'}, {@code 'E'},
 
* {@code 'G'}, {@code 'A'}, and {@code 'T'}) are the same as those for the
 
* corresponding lower-case conversion characters except that the result is
 
* converted to upper case according to the rules of the prevailing {@link
 
* java.util.Locale Locale}.
  
The result is equivalent to the following
 
* invocation of {@link String#toUpperCase()}
 
*
 
* <pre>
 
*
    
out.toUpperCase() </pre>
 
*
 
* <h4><a name="dgen">General</a></h4>
 
*
 
* <p> The following general conversions may be applied to any argument type:
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="dgConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'b'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0062'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Produces either "{@code true}" or "{@code false}" as returned by
 
*
     
{@link Boolean#toString(boolean)}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the argument is {@code null}, then the result is
 
*
     
"{@code false}".
  
If the argument is a {@code boolean} or {@link
 
*
     
Boolean}, then the result is the string returned by {@link
 
*
     
String#valueOf(boolean) String.valueOf()}.
  
Otherwise, the result is
 
*
     
"{@code true}".
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'B'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0042'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'b'}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'h'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0068'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Produces a string representing the hash code value of the object.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the argument, <i>arg</i> is {@code null}, then the
 
*
     
result is "{@code null}".
  
Otherwise, the result is obtained
 
*
     
by invoking {@code Integer.toHexString(arg.hashCode())}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'H'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0048'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'h'}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 's'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0073'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Produces a string.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the argument is {@code null}, then the result is
 
*
     
"{@code null}".
  
If the argument implements {@link Formattable}, then
 
*
     
its {@link Formattable#formatTo formatTo} method is invoked.
 
*
     
Otherwise, the result is obtained by invoking the argument's
 
*
     
{@code toString()} method.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given and the argument is not a {@link
 
*
     
Formattable} , then a {@link FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException}
 
*
     
will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'S'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0053'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 's'}.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> The following <a name="dFlags">flags</a> apply to general conversions:
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="dFlags">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '-'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Left justifies the output.
  
Spaces (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) will be
 
*
     
added at the end of the converted value as required to fill the minimum
 
*
     
width of the field.
  
If the width is not provided, then a {@link
 
*
     
MissingFormatWidthException} will be thrown.
  
If this flag is not given
 
*
     
then the output will be right-justified.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '#'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0023'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output use an alternate form.
  
The definition of the
 
*
     
form is specified by the conversion.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> The <a name="genWidth">width</a> is the minimum number of characters to
 
* be written to the
 
* output.
  
If the length of the converted value is less than the width then
 
* the output will be padded by <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt> (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>)
 
* until the total number of characters equals the width.
  
The padding is on
 
* the left by default.
  
If the {@code '-'} flag is given, then the padding
 
* will be on the right.
  
If the width is not specified then there is no
 
* minimum.
 
*
 
* <p> The precision is the maximum number of characters to be written to the
 
* output.
  
The precision is applied before the width, thus the output will be
 
* truncated to {@code precision} characters even if the width is greater than
 
* the precision.
  
If the precision is not specified then there is no explicit
 
* limit on the number of characters.
 
*
 
* <h4><a name="dchar">Character</a></h4>
 
*
 
* This conversion may be applied to {@code char} and {@link Character}.
  
It
 
* may also be applied to the types {@code byte}, {@link Byte},
 
* {@code short}, and {@link Short}, {@code int} and {@link Integer} when
 
* {@link Character#isValidCodePoint} returns {@code true}.
  
If it returns
 
* {@code false} then an {@link IllegalFormatCodePointException} will be
 
* thrown.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="charConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'c'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0063'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Formats the argument as a Unicode character as described in <a
 
*
     
href="../lang/Character.html#unicode">Unicode Character
 
*
     
Representation</a>.
  
This may be more than one 16-bit {@code char} in
 
*
     
the case where the argument represents a supplementary character.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'C'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0043'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'c'}.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> The {@code '-'} flag defined for <a href="#dFlags">General
 
* conversions</a> applies.
  
If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
 
* FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <p> The width is defined as for<a href="#genWidth">General conversions</a>.
 
*
 
* <p> The precision is not applicable.
  
If the precision is specified then an
 
* {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <h4><a name="dnum">Numeric</a></h4>
 
*
 
* <p> Numeric conversions are divided into the following categories:
 
*
 
* <ol>
 
*
 
* <li><a href="#dnint"><b>Byte, Short, Integer, and Long</b></a>
 
*
 
* <li><a href="#dnbint"><b>BigInteger</b></a>
 
*
 
* <li><a href="#dndec"><b>Float and Double</b></a>
 
*
 
* <li><a href="#dnbdec"><b>BigDecimal</b></a>
 
*
 
* </ol>
 
*
 
* <p> Numeric types will be formatted according to the following algorithm:
 
*
 
* <p><b><a name="L10nAlgorithm"> Number Localization Algorithm</a></b>
 
*
 
* <p> After digits are obtained for the integer part, fractional part, and
 
* exponent (as appropriate for the data type), the following transformation
 
* is applied:
 
*
 
* <ol>
 
*
 
* <li> Each digit character <i>d</i> in the string is replaced by a
 
* locale-specific digit computed relative to the current locale's
 
* {@linkplain java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getZeroDigit() zero digit}
 
* <i>z</i>; that is <i>d&nbsp;-&nbsp;</i> {@code '0'}
 
* <i>&nbsp;+&nbsp;z</i>.
 
*
 
* <li> If a decimal separator is present, a locale-specific {@linkplain
 
* java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getDecimalSeparator decimal separator} is
 
* substituted.
 
*
 
* <li> If the {@code ','} (<tt>'&#92;u002c'</tt>)
 
* <a name="L10nGroup">flag</a> is given, then the locale-specific {@linkplain
 
* java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getGroupingSeparator grouping separator} is
 
* inserted by scanning the integer part of the string from least significant
 
* to most significant digits and inserting a separator at intervals defined by
 
* the locale's {@linkplain java.text.DecimalFormat#getGroupingSize() grouping
 
* size}.
 
*
 
* <li> If the {@code '0'} flag is given, then the locale-specific {@linkplain
 
* java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getZeroDigit() zero digits} are inserted
 
* after the sign character, if any, and before the first non-zero digit, until
 
* the length of the string is equal to the requested field width.
 
*
 
* <li> If the value is negative and the {@code '('} flag is given, then a
 
* {@code '('} (<tt>'&#92;u0028'</tt>) is prepended and a {@code ')'}
 
* (<tt>'&#92;u0029'</tt>) is appended.
 
*
 
* <li> If the value is negative (or floating-point negative zero) and
 
* {@code '('} flag is not given, then a {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>)
 
* is prepended.
 
*
 
* <li> If the {@code '+'} flag is given and the value is positive or zero (or
 
* floating-point positive zero), then a {@code '+'} (<tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>)
 
* will be prepended.
 
*
 
* </ol>
 
*
 
* <p> If the value is NaN or positive infinity the literal strings "NaN" or
 
* "Infinity" respectively, will be output.
  
If the value is negative infinity,
 
* then the output will be "(Infinity)" if the {@code '('} flag is given
 
* otherwise the output will be "-Infinity".
  
These values are not localized.
 
*
 
* <p><a name="dnint"><b> Byte, Short, Integer, and Long </b></a>
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversions may be applied to {@code byte}, {@link Byte},
 
* {@code short}, {@link Short}, {@code int} and {@link Integer},
 
* {@code long}, and {@link Long}.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="IntConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'd'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0064'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Formats the argument as a decimal integer. The <a
 
*
     
href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization algorithm</a> is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given and the value is negative, then
 
*
     
the zero padding will occur after the sign.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then a {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'o'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006f'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Formats the argument as an integer in base eight.
  
No localization
 
*
     
is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>x</i> is negative then the result will be an unsigned value
 
*
     
generated by adding 2<sup>n</sup> to the value where {@code n} is the
 
*
     
number of bits in the type as returned by the static {@code SIZE} field
 
*
     
in the {@linkplain Byte#SIZE Byte}, {@linkplain Short#SIZE Short},
 
*
     
{@linkplain Integer#SIZE Integer}, or {@linkplain Long#SIZE Long}
 
*
     
classes as appropriate.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then the output will always begin
 
*
     
with the radix indicator {@code '0'}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given then the output will be padded
 
*
     
with leading zeros to the field width following any indication of sign.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If {@code '('}, {@code '+'}, '&nbsp;&nbsp;', or {@code ','} flags
 
*
     
are given then a {@link FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be
 
*
     
thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'x'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0078'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Formats the argument as an integer in base sixteen. No
 
*
     
localization is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>x</i> is negative then the result will be an unsigned value
 
*
     
generated by adding 2<sup>n</sup> to the value where {@code n} is the
 
*
     
number of bits in the type as returned by the static {@code SIZE} field
 
*
     
in the {@linkplain Byte#SIZE Byte}, {@linkplain Short#SIZE Short},
 
*
     
{@linkplain Integer#SIZE Integer}, or {@linkplain Long#SIZE Long}
 
*
     
classes as appropriate.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then the output will always begin
 
*
     
with the radix indicator {@code "0x"}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given then the output will be padded to
 
*
     
the field width with leading zeros after the radix indicator or sign (if
 
*
     
present).
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If {@code '('}, <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt>, {@code '+'}, or
 
*
     
{@code ','} flags are given then a {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'X'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0058'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'x'}.
  
The entire string
 
*
     
representing the number will be converted to {@linkplain
 
*
     
String#toUpperCase upper case} including the {@code 'x'} (if any) and
 
*
     
all hexadecimal digits {@code 'a'} - {@code 'f'}
 
*
     
(<tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt> -
  
<tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>).
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> If the conversion is {@code 'o'}, {@code 'x'}, or {@code 'X'} and
 
* both the {@code '#'} and the {@code '0'} flags are given, then result will
 
* contain the radix indicator ({@code '0'} for octal and {@code "0x"} or
 
* {@code "0X"} for hexadecimal), some number of zeros (based on the width),
 
* and the value.
 
*
 
* <p> If the {@code '-'} flag is not given, then the space padding will occur
 
* before the sign.
 
*
 
* <p> The following <a name="intFlags">flags</a> apply to numeric integral
 
* conversions:
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="intFlags">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '+'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to include a positive sign for all positive
 
*
     
numbers.
  
If this flag is not given then only negative values will
 
*
     
include a sign.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If both the {@code '+'} and <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt> flags are given
 
*
     
then an {@link IllegalFormatFlagsException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt>
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to include a single extra space
 
*
     
(<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) for non-negative values.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If both the {@code '+'} and <tt>'&nbsp;&nbsp;'</tt> flags are given
 
*
     
then an {@link IllegalFormatFlagsException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '0'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0030'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be padded with leading {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getZeroDigit zeros} to the minimum field
 
*
     
width following any sign or radix indicator except when converting NaN
 
*
     
or infinity.
  
If the width is not provided, then a {@link
 
*
     
MissingFormatWidthException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If both the {@code '-'} and {@code '0'} flags are given then an
 
*
     
{@link IllegalFormatFlagsException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code ','}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u002c'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to include the locale-specific {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DecimalFormatSymbols#getGroupingSeparator group separators} as
 
*
     
described in the <a href="#L10nGroup">"group" section</a> of the
 
*
     
localization algorithm.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code '('}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0028'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to prepend a {@code '('}
 
*
     
(<tt>'&#92;u0028'</tt>) and append a {@code ')'}
 
*
     
(<tt>'&#92;u0029'</tt>) to negative values.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> If no <a name="intdFlags">flags</a> are given the default formatting is
 
* as follows:
 
*
 
* <ul>
 
*
 
* <li> The output is right-justified within the {@code width}
 
*
 
* <li> Negative numbers begin with a {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>)
 
*
 
* <li> Positive numbers and zero do not include a sign or extra leading
 
* space
 
*
 
* <li> No grouping separators are included
 
*
 
* </ul>
 
*
 
* <p> The <a name="intWidth">width</a> is the minimum number of characters to
 
* be written to the output.
  
This includes any signs, digits, grouping
 
* separators, radix indicator, and parentheses.
  
If the length of the
 
* converted value is less than the width then the output will be padded by
 
* spaces (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) until the total number of characters equals
 
* width.
  
The padding is on the left by default.If {@code '-'} flag is
 
* given then the padding will be on the right.
  
If width is not specified then
 
* there is no minimum.
 
*
 
* <p> The precision is not applicable.
  
If precision is specified then an
 
* {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <p><a name="dnbint"><b> BigInteger </b></a>
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversions may be applied to {@link
 
* java.math.BigInteger}.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="BIntConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'd'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0064'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted as a decimal integer. The <a
 
*
     
href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization algorithm</a> is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'o'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006f'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted as an integer in base eight.
 
*
     
No localization is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>x</i> is negative then the result will be a signed value
 
*
     
beginning with {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>).
  
Signed output is
 
*
     
allowed for this type because unlike the primitive types it is not
 
*
     
possible to create an unsigned equivalent without assuming an explicit
 
*
     
data-type size.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>x</i> is positive or zero and the {@code '+'} flag is given
 
*
     
then the result will begin with {@code '+'} (<tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>).
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then the output will always begin
 
*
     
with {@code '0'} prefix.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given then the output will be padded
 
*
     
with leading zeros to the field width following any indication of sign.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code ','} flag is given then a {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'x'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0078'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted as an integer in base
 
*
     
sixteen.
  
No localization is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>x</i> is negative then the result will be a signed value
 
*
     
beginning with {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>).
  
Signed output is
 
*
     
allowed for this type because unlike the primitive types it is not
 
*
     
possible to create an unsigned equivalent without assuming an explicit
 
*
     
data-type size.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>x</i> is positive or zero and the {@code '+'} flag is given
 
*
     
then the result will begin with {@code '+'} (<tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>).
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then the output will always begin
 
*
     
with the radix indicator {@code "0x"}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given then the output will be padded to
 
*
     
the field width with leading zeros after the radix indicator or sign (if
 
*
     
present).
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code ','} flag is given then a {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'X'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0058'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'x'}.
  
The entire string
 
*
     
representing the number will be converted to {@linkplain
 
*
     
String#toUpperCase upper case} including the {@code 'x'} (if any) and
 
*
     
all hexadecimal digits {@code 'a'} - {@code 'f'}
 
*
     
(<tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt> - <tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>).
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> If the conversion is {@code 'o'}, {@code 'x'}, or {@code 'X'} and
 
* both the {@code '#'} and the {@code '0'} flags are given, then result will
 
* contain the base indicator ({@code '0'} for octal and {@code "0x"} or
 
* {@code "0X"} for hexadecimal), some number of zeros (based on the width),
 
* and the value.
 
*
 
* <p> If the {@code '0'} flag is given and the value is negative, then the
 
* zero padding will occur after the sign.
 
*
 
* <p> If the {@code '-'} flag is not given, then the space padding will occur
 
* before the sign.
 
*
 
* <p> All<a href="#intFlags">flags</a>
 
defined for Byte, Short, Integer, and
 
* Long apply.
  
The<a href="#intdFlags">default behavior</a>
 
when no flags are
 
* given is the same as for Byte, Short, Integer, and Long.
 
*
 
* <p> The specification of<a href="#intWidth">width</a>
 
is the same as
 
* defined for Byte, Short, Integer, and Long.
 
*
 
* <p> The precision is not applicable.
  
If precision is specified then an
 
* {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <p><a name="dndec"><b> Float and Double</b></a>
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversions may be applied to {@code float}, {@link
 
* Float}, {@code double} and {@link Double}.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="floatConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'e'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted using <a
 
*
     
name="scientific">computerized scientific notation</a>.
  
The <a
 
*
     
href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization algorithm</a> is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its value.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>m</i> is NaN or infinite, the literal strings "NaN" or
 
*
     
"Infinity", respectively, will be output.
  
These values are not
 
*
     
localized.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>m</i> is positive-zero or negative-zero, then the exponent
 
*
     
will be {@code "+00"}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> Otherwise, the result is a string that represents the sign and
 
*
     
magnitude (absolute value) of the argument.
  
The formatting of the sign
 
*
     
is described in the <a href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization
 
*
     
algorithm</a>. The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its
 
*
     
value.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> Let <i>n</i> be the unique integer such that 10<sup><i>n</i></sup>
 
*
     
&lt;= <i>m</i> &lt; 10<sup><i>n</i>+1</sup>; then let <i>a</i> be the
 
*
     
mathematically exact quotient of <i>m</i> and 10<sup><i>n</i></sup> so
 
*
     
that 1 &lt;= <i>a</i> &lt; 10. The magnitude is then represented as the
 
*
     
integer part of <i>a</i>, as a single decimal digit, followed by the
 
*
     
decimal separator followed by decimal digits representing the fractional
 
*
     
part of <i>a</i>, followed by the exponent symbol {@code 'e'}
 
*
     
(<tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>), followed by the sign of the exponent, followed
 
*
     
by a representation of <i>n</i> as a decimal integer, as produced by the
 
*
     
method {@link Long#toString(long, int)}, and zero-padded to include at
 
*
     
least two digits.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The number of digits in the result for the fractional part of
 
*
     
<i>m</i> or <i>a</i> is equal to the precision.
  
If the precision is not
 
*
     
specified then the default value is {@code 6}. If the precision is less
 
*
     
than the number of digits which would appear after the decimal point in
 
*
     
the string returned by {@link Float#toString(float)} or {@link
 
*
     
Double#toString(double)} respectively, then the value will be rounded
 
*
     
using the {@linkplain java.math.BigDecimal#ROUND_HALF_UP round half up
 
*
     
algorithm}.
  
Otherwise, zeros may be appended to reach the precision.
 
*
     
For a canonical representation of the value, use {@link
 
*
     
Float#toString(float)} or {@link Double#toString(double)} as
 
*
     
appropriate.
 
*
 
*
     
<p>If the {@code ','} flag is given, then an {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'E'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0045'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'e'}.
  
The exponent symbol
 
*
     
will be {@code 'E'} (<tt>'&#92;u0045'</tt>).
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'g'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0067'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted in general scientific notation
 
*
     
as described below. The <a href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization
 
*
     
algorithm</a> is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> After rounding for the precision, the formatting of the resulting
 
*
     
magnitude <i>m</i> depends on its value.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>m</i> is greater than or equal to 10<sup>-4</sup> but less
 
*
     
than 10<sup>precision</sup> then it is represented in <i><a
 
*
     
href="#decimal">decimal format</a></i>.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>m</i> is less than 10<sup>-4</sup> or greater than or equal to
 
*
     
10<sup>precision</sup>, then it is represented in <i><a
 
*
     
href="#scientific">computerized scientific notation</a></i>.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The total number of significant digits in <i>m</i> is equal to the
 
*
     
precision.
  
If the precision is not specified, then the default value is
 
*
     
{@code 6}.
  
If the precision is {@code 0}, then it is taken to be
 
*
     
{@code 1}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then an {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'G'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0047'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'g'}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'f'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted using <a name="decimal">decimal
 
*
     
format</a>.
  
The<a href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization algorithm</a>
 
is
 
*
     
applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The result is a string that represents the sign and magnitude
 
*
     
(absolute value) of the argument.
  
The formatting of the sign is
 
*
     
described in the <a href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization
 
*
     
algorithm</a>. The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its
 
*
     
value.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>m</i> NaN or infinite, the literal strings "NaN" or
 
*
     
"Infinity", respectively, will be output.
  
These values are not
 
*
     
localized.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The magnitude is formatted as the integer part of <i>m</i>, with no
 
*
     
leading zeroes, followed by the decimal separator followed by one or
 
*
     
more decimal digits representing the fractional part of <i>m</i>.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The number of digits in the result for the fractional part of
 
*
     
<i>m</i> or <i>a</i> is equal to the precision.
  
If the precision is not
 
*
     
specified then the default value is {@code 6}. If the precision is less
 
*
     
than the number of digits which would appear after the decimal point in
 
*
     
the string returned by {@link Float#toString(float)} or {@link
 
*
     
Double#toString(double)} respectively, then the value will be rounded
 
*
     
using the {@linkplain java.math.BigDecimal#ROUND_HALF_UP round half up
 
*
     
algorithm}.
  
Otherwise, zeros may be appended to reach the precision.
 
*
     
For a canonical representation of the value, use {@link
 
*
     
Float#toString(float)} or {@link Double#toString(double)} as
 
*
     
appropriate.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'a'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted in hexadecimal exponential
 
*
     
form.
  
No localization is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The result is a string that represents the sign and magnitude
 
*
     
(absolute value) of the argument <i>x</i>.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>x</i> is negative or a negative-zero value then the result
 
*
     
will begin with {@code '-'} (<tt>'&#92;u002d'</tt>).
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>x</i> is positive or a positive-zero value and the
 
*
     
{@code '+'} flag is given then the result will begin with {@code '+'}
 
*
     
(<tt>'&#92;u002b'</tt>).
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its value.
 
*
 
*
     
<ul>
 
*
 
*
     
<li> If the value is NaN or infinite, the literal strings "NaN" or
 
*
     
"Infinity", respectively, will be output.
 
*
 
*
     
<li> If <i>m</i> is zero then it is represented by the string
 
*
     
{@code "0x0.0p0"}.
 
*
 
*
     
<li> If <i>m</i> is a {@code double} value with a normalized
 
*
     
representation then substrings are used to represent the significand and
 
*
     
exponent fields.
  
The significand is represented by the characters
 
*
     
{@code "0x1."} followed by the hexadecimal representation of the rest
 
*
     
of the significand as a fraction.
  
The exponent is represented by
 
*
     
{@code 'p'} (<tt>'&#92;u0070'</tt>) followed by a decimal string of the
 
*
     
unbiased exponent as if produced by invoking {@link
 
*
     
Integer#toString(int) Integer.toString} on the exponent value.
  
If the
 
*
     
precision is specified, the value is rounded to the given number of
 
*
     
hexadecimal digits.
 
*
 
*
     
<li> If <i>m</i> is a {@code double} value with a subnormal
 
*
     
representation then, unless the precision is specified to be in the range
 
*
     
1 through 12, inclusive, the significand is represented by the characters
 
*
     
{@code '0x0.'} followed by the hexadecimal representation of the rest of
 
*
     
the significand as a fraction, and the exponent represented by
 
*
     
{@code 'p-1022'}.
  
If the precision is in the interval
 
*
     
[1,&nbsp;12], the subnormal value is normalized such that it
 
*
     
begins with the characters {@code '0x1.'}, rounded to the number of
 
*
     
hexadecimal digits of precision, and the exponent adjusted
 
*
     
accordingly.
  
Note that there must be at least one nonzero digit in a
 
*
     
subnormal significand.
 
*
 
*
     
</ul>
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '('} or {@code ','} flags are given, then a {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'A'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0041'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'a'}.
  
The entire string
 
*
     
representing the number will be converted to upper case including the
 
*
     
{@code 'x'} (<tt>'&#92;u0078'</tt>) and {@code 'p'}
 
*
     
(<tt>'&#92;u0070'</tt> and all hexadecimal digits {@code 'a'} -
 
*
     
{@code 'f'} (<tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt> - <tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>).
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> All<a href="#intFlags">flags</a>
 
defined for Byte, Short, Integer, and
 
* Long apply.
 
*
 
* <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then the decimal separator will
 
* always be present.
 
*
 
* <p> If no <a name="floatdFlags">flags</a> are given the default formatting
 
* is as follows:
 
*
 
* <ul>
 
*
 
* <li> The output is right-justified within the {@code width}
 
*
 
* <li> Negative numbers begin with a {@code '-'}
 
*
 
* <li> Positive numbers and positive zero do not include a sign or extra
 
* leading space
 
*
 
* <li> No grouping separators are included
 
*
 
* <li> The decimal separator will only appear if a digit follows it
 
*
 
* </ul>
 
*
 
* <p> The <a name="floatDWidth">width</a> is the minimum number of characters
 
* to be written to the output.
  
This includes any signs, digits, grouping
 
* separators, decimal separators, exponential symbol, radix indicator,
 
* parentheses, and strings representing infinity and NaN as applicable.
  
If
 
* the length of the converted value is less than the width then the output
 
* will be padded by spaces (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) until the total number of
 
* characters equals width.
  
The padding is on the left by default.If the
 
* {@code '-'} flag is given then the padding will be on the right.
  
If width
 
* is not specified then there is no minimum.
 
*
 
* <p> If the <a name="floatDPrec">conversion</a> is {@code 'e'},
 
* {@code 'E'} or {@code 'f'}, then the precision is the number of digits
 
* after the decimal separator.
  
If the precision is not specified, then it is
 
* assumed to be {@code 6}.
 
*
 
* <p> If the conversion is {@code 'g'} or {@code 'G'}, then the precision is
 
* the total number of significant digits in the resulting magnitude after
 
* rounding.
  
If the precision is not specified, then the default value is
 
* {@code 6}.
  
If the precision is {@code 0}, then it is taken to be
 
* {@code 1}.
 
*
 
* <p> If the conversion is {@code 'a'} or {@code 'A'}, then the precision
 
* is the number of hexadecimal digits after the radix point.
  
If the
 
* precision is not provided, then all of the digits as returned by {@link
 
* Double#toHexString(double)} will be output.
 
*
 
* <p><a name="dnbdec"><b> BigDecimal </b></a>
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversions may be applied {@link java.math.BigDecimal
 
* BigDecimal}.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="floatConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'e'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted using <a
 
*
     
name="bscientific">computerized scientific notation</a>.
  
The <a
 
*
     
href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization algorithm</a> is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its value.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>m</i> is positive-zero or negative-zero, then the exponent
 
*
     
will be {@code "+00"}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> Otherwise, the result is a string that represents the sign and
 
*
     
magnitude (absolute value) of the argument.
  
The formatting of the sign
 
*
     
is described in the <a href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization
 
*
     
algorithm</a>. The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its
 
*
     
value.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> Let <i>n</i> be the unique integer such that 10<sup><i>n</i></sup>
 
*
     
&lt;= <i>m</i> &lt; 10<sup><i>n</i>+1</sup>; then let <i>a</i> be the
 
*
     
mathematically exact quotient of <i>m</i> and 10<sup><i>n</i></sup> so
 
*
     
that 1 &lt;= <i>a</i> &lt; 10. The magnitude is then represented as the
 
*
     
integer part of <i>a</i>, as a single decimal digit, followed by the
 
*
     
decimal separator followed by decimal digits representing the fractional
 
*
     
part of <i>a</i>, followed by the exponent symbol {@code 'e'}
 
*
     
(<tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>), followed by the sign of the exponent, followed
 
*
     
by a representation of <i>n</i> as a decimal integer, as produced by the
 
*
     
method {@link Long#toString(long, int)}, and zero-padded to include at
 
*
     
least two digits.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The number of digits in the result for the fractional part of
 
*
     
<i>m</i> or <i>a</i> is equal to the precision.
  
If the precision is not
 
*
     
specified then the default value is {@code 6}.
  
If the precision is
 
*
     
less than the number of digits to the right of the decimal point then
 
*
     
the value will be rounded using the
 
*
     
{@linkplain java.math.BigDecimal#ROUND_HALF_UP round half up
 
*
     
algorithm}.
  
Otherwise, zeros may be appended to reach the precision.
 
*
     
For a canonical representation of the value, use {@link
 
*
     
BigDecimal#toString()}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code ','} flag is given, then an {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'E'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0045'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'e'}.
  
The exponent symbol
 
*
     
will be {@code 'E'} (<tt>'&#92;u0045'</tt>).
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'g'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0067'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted in general scientific notation
 
*
     
as described below. The <a href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization
 
*
     
algorithm</a> is applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> After rounding for the precision, the formatting of the resulting
 
*
     
magnitude <i>m</i> depends on its value.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>m</i> is greater than or equal to 10<sup>-4</sup> but less
 
*
     
than 10<sup>precision</sup> then it is represented in <i><a
 
*
     
href="#bdecimal">decimal format</a></i>.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If <i>m</i> is less than 10<sup>-4</sup> or greater than or equal to
 
*
     
10<sup>precision</sup>, then it is represented in <i><a
 
*
     
href="#bscientific">computerized scientific notation</a></i>.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The total number of significant digits in <i>m</i> is equal to the
 
*
     
precision.
  
If the precision is not specified, then the default value is
 
*
     
{@code 6}.
  
If the precision is {@code 0}, then it is taken to be
 
*
     
{@code 1}.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given then an {@link
 
*
     
FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'G'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0047'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 'g'}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'f'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0066'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Requires the output to be formatted using <a name="bdecimal">decimal
 
*
     
format</a>.
  
The<a href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization algorithm</a>
 
is
 
*
     
applied.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The result is a string that represents the sign and magnitude
 
*
     
(absolute value) of the argument.
  
The formatting of the sign is
 
*
     
described in the <a href="#L10nAlgorithm">localization
 
*
     
algorithm</a>. The formatting of the magnitude <i>m</i> depends upon its
 
*
     
value.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The magnitude is formatted as the integer part of <i>m</i>, with no
 
*
     
leading zeroes, followed by the decimal separator followed by one or
 
*
     
more decimal digits representing the fractional part of <i>m</i>.
 
*
 
*
     
<p> The number of digits in the result for the fractional part of
 
*
     
<i>m</i> or <i>a</i> is equal to the precision. If the precision is not
 
*
     
specified then the default value is {@code 6}.
  
If the precision is
 
*
     
less than the number of digits to the right of the decimal point
 
*
     
then the value will be rounded using the
 
*
     
{@linkplain java.math.BigDecimal#ROUND_HALF_UP round half up
 
*
     
algorithm}.
  
Otherwise, zeros may be appended to reach the precision.
 
*
     
For a canonical representation of the value, use {@link
 
*
     
BigDecimal#toString()}.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> All<a href="#intFlags">flags</a>
 
defined for Byte, Short, Integer, and
 
* Long apply.
 
*
 
* <p> If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then the decimal separator will
 
* always be present.
 
*
 
* <p> The<a href="#floatdFlags">default behavior</a>
 
when no flags are
 
* given is the same as for Float and Double.
 
*
 
* <p> The specification of<a href="#floatDWidth">width</a>
 
and <a
 
* href="#floatDPrec">precision</a> is the same as defined for Float and
 
* Double.
 
*
 
* <h4><a name="ddt">Date/Time</a></h4>
 
*
 
* <p> This conversion may be applied to {@code long}, {@link Long}, {@link
 
* Calendar}, {@link Date} and {@link TemporalAccessor TemporalAccessor}
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="DTConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 't'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0074'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Prefix for date and time conversion characters.
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'T'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0054'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> The upper-case variant of {@code 't'}.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> The following date and time conversion character suffixes are defined
 
* for the {@code 't'} and {@code 'T'} conversions.
  
The types are similar to
 
* but not completely identical to those defined by GNU {@code date} and
 
* POSIX {@code strftime(3c)}.
  
Additional conversion types are provided to
 
* access Java-specific functionality (e.g. {@code 'L'} for milliseconds
 
* within the second).
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting times:
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="time">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top"> {@code 'H'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0048'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Hour of the day for the 24-hour clock, formatted as two digits with
 
*
     
a leading zero as necessary i.e. {@code 00 - 23}. {@code 00}
 
*
     
corresponds to midnight.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'I'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0049'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Hour for the 12-hour clock, formatted as two digits with a leading
 
*
     
zero as necessary, i.e.
  
{@code 01 - 12}.{@code 01} corresponds to
 
*
     
one o'clock (either morning or afternoon).
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'k'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006b'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Hour of the day for the 24-hour clock, i.e. {@code 0 - 23}.
 
*
     
{@code 0} corresponds to midnight.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'l'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006c'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Hour for the 12-hour clock, i.e. {@code 1 - 12}.
  
{@code 1}
 
*
     
corresponds to one o'clock (either morning or afternoon).
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'M'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u004d'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Minute within the hour formatted as two digits with a leading zero
 
*
     
as necessary, i.e.
  
{@code 00 - 59}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'S'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0053'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Seconds within the minute, formatted as two digits with a leading
 
*
     
zero as necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 60} ("{@code 60}" is a special
 
*
     
value required to support leap seconds).
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'L'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u004c'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Millisecond within the second formatted as three digits with
 
*
     
leading zeros as necessary, i.e. {@code 000 - 999}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'N'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u004e'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Nanosecond within the second, formatted as nine digits with leading
 
*
     
zeros as necessary, i.e. {@code 000000000 - 999999999}.
  
The precision
 
*
     
of this value is limited by the resolution of the underlying operating
 
*
     
system or hardware.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'p'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0070'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getAmPmStrings morning or afternoon} marker
 
*
     
in lower case, e.g."{@code am}" or "{@code pm}".
  
Use of the
 
*
     
conversion prefix {@code 'T'} forces this output to upper case.
  
(Note
 
*
     
that {@code 'p'} produces lower-case output.
  
This is different from
 
*
     
GNU {@code date} and POSIX {@code strftime(3c)} which produce
 
*
     
upper-case output.)
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'z'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u007a'</tt>
 
*
     
<td><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0822.txt">RFC&nbsp;822</a>
 
*
     
style numeric time zone offset from GMT, e.g. {@code -0800}.
  
This
 
*
     
value will be adjusted as necessary for Daylight Saving Time.
  
For
 
*
     
{@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link Date} the time zone used is
 
*
     
the {@linkplain TimeZone#getDefault() default time zone} for this
 
*
     
instance of the Java virtual machine.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Z'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u005a'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> A string representing the abbreviation for the time zone.
  
This
 
*
     
value will be adjusted as necessary for Daylight Saving Time.
  
For
 
*
     
{@code long}, {@link Long}, and {@link Date} the time zone used is
 
*
     
the {@linkplain TimeZone#getDefault() default time zone} for this
 
*
     
instance of the Java virtual machine.
  
The Formatter's locale will
 
*
     
supersede the locale of the argument (if any).
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 's'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0073'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Seconds since the beginning of the epoch starting at 1 January 1970
 
*
     
{@code 00:00:00} UTC, i.e. {@code Long.MIN_VALUE/1000} to
 
*
     
{@code Long.MAX_VALUE/1000}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Q'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u004f'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Milliseconds since the beginning of the epoch starting at 1 January
 
*
     
1970 {@code 00:00:00} UTC, i.e. {@code Long.MIN_VALUE} to
 
*
     
{@code Long.MAX_VALUE}. The precision of this value is limited by
 
*
     
the resolution of the underlying operating system or hardware.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting dates:
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="date">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'B'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0042'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific {@linkplain java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getMonths
 
*
     
full month name}, e.g. {@code "January"}, {@code "February"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'b'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0062'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getShortMonths abbreviated month name},
 
*
     
e.g. {@code "Jan"}, {@code "Feb"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'h'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0068'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Same as {@code 'b'}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'A'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0041'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific full name of the {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getWeekdays day of the week},
 
*
     
e.g. {@code "Sunday"}, {@code "Monday"}
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'a'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0061'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Locale-specific short name of the {@linkplain
 
*
     
java.text.DateFormatSymbols#getShortWeekdays day of the week},
 
*
     
e.g. {@code "Sun"}, {@code "Mon"}
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'C'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0043'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Four-digit year divided by {@code 100}, formatted as two digits
 
*
     
with leading zero as necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 99}
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'Y'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0059'</tt> <td> Year, formatted to at least
 
*
     
four digits with leading zeros as necessary, e.g. {@code 0092} equals
 
*
     
{@code 92} CE for the Gregorian calendar.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'y'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0079'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Last two digits of the year, formatted with leading zeros as
 
*
     
necessary, i.e. {@code 00 - 99}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'j'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006a'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Day of year, formatted as three digits with leading zeros as
 
*
     
necessary, e.g. {@code 001 - 366} for the Gregorian calendar.
 
*
     
{@code 001} corresponds to the first day of the year.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'm'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u006d'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Month, formatted as two digits with leading zeros as necessary,
 
*
     
i.e. {@code 01 - 13}, where "{@code 01}" is the first month of the
 
*
     
year and ("{@code 13}" is a special value required to support lunar
 
*
     
calendars).
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'd'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0064'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Day of month, formatted as two digits with leading zeros as
 
*
     
necessary, i.e. {@code 01 - 31}, where "{@code 01}" is the first day
 
*
     
of the month.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'e'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0065'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Day of month, formatted as two digits, i.e. {@code 1 - 31} where
 
*
     
"{@code 1}" is the first day of the month.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> The following conversion characters are used for formatting common
 
* date/time compositions.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="composites">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'R'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0052'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Time formatted for the 24-hour clock as {@code "%tH:%tM"}
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'T'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0054'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Time formatted for the 24-hour clock as {@code "%tH:%tM:%tS"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'r'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0072'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Time formatted for the 12-hour clock as {@code "%tI:%tM:%tS
 
*
     
%Tp"}.
  
The location of the morning or afternoon marker
 
*
     
({@code '%Tp'}) may be locale-dependent.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'D'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0044'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Date formatted as {@code "%tm/%td/%ty"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'F'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0046'</tt>
 
*
     
<td><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime">ISO&nbsp;8601</a>
 
*
     
complete date formatted as {@code "%tY-%tm-%td"}.
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'c'}
 
*
     
<td valign="top"> <tt>'&#92;u0063'</tt>
 
*
     
<td> Date and time formatted as {@code "%ta %tb %td %tT %tZ %tY"},
 
*
     
e.g. {@code "Sun Jul 20 16:17:00 EDT 1969"}.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> The {@code '-'} flag defined for <a href="#dFlags">General
 
* conversions</a> applies.
  
If the {@code '#'} flag is given, then a {@link
 
* FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <p> The width is the minimum number of characters to
 
* be written to the output.
  
If the length of the converted value is less than
 
* the {@code width} then the output will be padded by spaces
 
* (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) until the total number of characters equals width.
 
* The padding is on the left by default.
  
If the {@code '-'} flag is given
 
* then the padding will be on the right.
  
If width is not specified then there
 
* is no minimum.
 
*
 
* <p> The precision is not applicable.
  
If the precision is specified then an
 
* {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <h4><a name="dper">Percent</a></h4>
 
*
 
* <p> The conversion does not correspond to any argument.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="DTConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code '%'}
 
*
     
<td> The result is a literal {@code '%'} (<tt>'&#92;u0025'</tt>)
 
*
 
* <p> The width is the minimum number of characters to
 
* be written to the output including the {@code '%'}.
  
If the length of the
 
* converted value is less than the {@code width} then the output will be
 
* padded by spaces (<tt>'&#92;u0020'</tt>) until the total number of
 
* characters equals width.
  
The padding is on the left.If width is not
 
* specified then just the {@code '%'} is output.
 
*
 
* <p> The {@code '-'} flag defined for <a href="#dFlags">General
 
* conversions</a> applies.
  
If any other flags are provided, then a
 
* {@link FormatFlagsConversionMismatchException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <p> The precision is not applicable.
  
If the precision is specified an
 
* {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException} will be thrown.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <h4><a name="dls">Line Separator</a></h4>
 
*
 
* <p> The conversion does not correspond to any argument.
 
*
 
* <table cellpadding=5 summary="DTConv">
 
*
 
* <tr><td valign="top">{@code 'n'}
 
*
     
<td> the platform-specific line separator as returned by {@link
 
*
     
System#getProperty System.getProperty("line.separator")}.
 
*
 
* </table>
 
*
 
* <p> Flags, width, and precision are not applicable.
  
If any are provided an
 
* {@link IllegalFormatFlagsException}, {@link IllegalFormatWidthException},
 
* and {@link IllegalFormatPrecisionException}, respectively will be thrown.
 
*
 
* <h4><a name="dpos">Argument Index</a></h4>
 
*
 
* <p> Format specifiers can reference arguments in three ways:
 
*
 
* <ul>
 
*
 
* <li> <i>Explicit indexing</i> is used when the format specifier contains an
 
* argument index.
  
The argument index is a decimal integer indicating the
 
* position of the argument in the argument list.
  
The first argument is
 
* referenced by "{@code 1$}", the second by "{@code 2$}", etc.
  
An argument
 
* may be referenced more than once.
 
*
 
* <p> For example:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
formatter.format("%4$s %3$s %2$s %1$s %4$s %3$s %2$s %1$s",
 
*
                    
"a", "b", "c", "d")
 
*
   
// -&gt; "d c b a d c b a"
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <li> <i>Relative indexing</i> is used when the format specifier contains a
 
* {@code '<'} (<tt>'&#92;u003c'</tt>) flag which causes the argument for
 
* the previous format specifier to be re-used.
  
If there is no previous
 
* argument, then a {@link MissingFormatArgumentException} is thrown.
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
    
formatter.format("%s %s %&lt;s %&lt;s", "a", "b", "c", "d")
 
*
    
// -&gt; "a b b b"
 
*
    
// "c" and "d" are ignored because they are not referenced
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <li> <i>Ordinary indexing</i> is used when the format specifier contains
 
* neither an argument index nor a {@code '<'} flag.
  
Each format specifier
 
* which uses ordinary indexing is assigned a sequential implicit index into
 
* argument list which is independent of the indices used by explicit or
 
* relative indexing.
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
formatter.format("%s %s %s %s", "a", "b", "c", "d")
 
*
   
// -&gt; "a b c d"
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* </ul>
 
*
 
* <p> It is possible to have a format string which uses all forms of indexing,
 
* for example:
 
*
 
* <blockquote><pre>
 
*
   
formatter.format("%2$s %s %&lt;s %s", "a", "b", "c", "d")
 
*
   
// -&gt; "b a a b"
 
*
   
// "c" and "d" are ignored because they are not referenced
 
* </pre></blockquote>
 
*
 
* <p> The maximum number of arguments is limited by the maximum dimension of a
 
* Java array as defined by
 
* <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>.
 
* If the argument index is does not correspond to an
 
* available argument, then a {@link MissingFormatArgumentException} is thrown.
 
*
 
* <p> If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the extra arguments
 
* are ignored.
 
*
 
* <p> Unless otherwise specified, passing a {@code null} argument to any
 
* method or constructor in this class will cause a {@link
 
* NullPointerException} to be thrown.
 
*
 
* @author
  
Iris Clark
 
* @since 1.5
 
*/

public final class Formatter implements Closeable, Flushable {
    
private Appendable a;
    
private final Locale l;

    
private IOException lastException;

    
private final char zero;
    
private static double scaleUp;

    
// 1 (sign) + 19 (max # sig digits) + 1 ('.') + 1 ('e') + 1 (sign)
    
// + 3 (max # exp digits) + 4 (error) = 30
    
private static final int MAX_FD_CHARS = 30;

    
/**
     
* Returns a charset object for the given charset name.
     
* @throws NullPointerException
          
is csn is null
     
* @throws UnsupportedEncodingException
  
if the charset is not supported
     
*/

    
private static Charset toCharset(String csn)
        
throws UnsupportedEncodingException
    
{
        
Objects.requireNonNull(csn, "charsetName");
        
try {
            
return Charset.forName(csn);
        
} catch (IllegalCharsetNameException|UnsupportedCharsetException unused) {
            
// UnsupportedEncodingException should be thrown
            
throw new UnsupportedEncodingException(csn);
        
}
    
}

    
private static final Appendable nonNullAppendable(Appendable a) {
        
if (a == null)
            
return new StringBuilder();

        
return a;
    
}

    
/* Private constructors */
    
private Formatter(Locale l, Appendable a) {
        
this.a = a;
        
this.l = l;
        
this.zero = getZero(l);
    
}

    
private Formatter(Charset charset, Locale l, File file)
        
throws FileNotFoundException
    
{
        
this(l,
             
new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(new FileOutputStream(file), charset)));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter.
     
*
     
* <p> The destination of the formatted output is a {@link StringBuilder}
     
* which may be retrieved by invoking {@link #out out()} and whose
     
* current content may be converted into a string by invoking {@link
     
* #toString toString()}.
  
The locale used is the {@linkplain
     
* Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default locale} for
     
* {@linkplain Locale.Category#FORMAT formatting} for this instance of the Java
     
* virtual machine.
     
*/

    
public Formatter() {
        
this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT), new StringBuilder());
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified destination.
     
*
     
* <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain
     
* Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default locale} for
     
* {@linkplain Locale.Category#FORMAT formatting} for this instance of the Java
     
* virtual machine.
     
*
     
* @param
  
a
     
*
         
Destination for the formatted output.
  
If {@code a} is
     
*
         
{@code null} then a {@link StringBuilder} will be created.
     
*/

    
public Formatter(Appendable a) {
        
this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT), nonNullAppendable(a));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified locale.
     
*
     
* <p> The destination of the formatted output is a {@link StringBuilder}
     
* which may be retrieved by invoking {@link #out out()} and whose current
     
* content may be converted into a string by invoking {@link #toString
     
* toString()}.
     
*
     
* @param
  
l
     
*
         
The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
     
*
         
formatting.
  
If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
     
*
         
is applied.
     
*/

    
public Formatter(Locale l) {
        
this(l, new StringBuilder());
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified destination and locale.
     
*
     
* @param
  
a
     
*
         
Destination for the formatted output.
  
If {@code a} is
     
*
         
{@code null} then a {@link StringBuilder} will be created.
     
*
     
* @param
  
l
     
*
         
The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
     
*
         
formatting.
  
If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
     
*
         
is applied.
     
*/

    
public Formatter(Appendable a, Locale l) {
        
this(l, nonNullAppendable(a));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified file name.
     
*
     
* <p> The charset used is the {@linkplain
     
* java.nio.charset.Charset#defaultCharset() default charset} for this
     
* instance of the Java virtual machine.
     
*
     
* <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain
     
* Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default locale} for
     
* {@linkplain Locale.Category#FORMAT formatting} for this instance of the Java
     
* virtual machine.
     
*
     
* @param
  
fileName
     
*
         
The name of the file to use as the destination of this
     
*
         
formatter.
  
If the file exists then it will be truncated to
     
*
         
zero size; otherwise, a new file will be created.
  
The output
     
*
         
will be written to the file and is buffered.
     
*
     
* @throws
  
SecurityException
     
*
          
If a security manager is present and {@link
     
*
          
SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(fileName)} denies write
     
*
          
access to the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
FileNotFoundException
     
*
          
If the given file name does not denote an existing, writable
     
*
          
regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
     
*
          
created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
     
*
          
creating the file
     
*/

    
public Formatter(String fileName) throws FileNotFoundException {
        
this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT),
             
new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(new FileOutputStream(fileName))));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified file name and charset.
     
*
     
* <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain
     
* Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default locale} for
     
* {@linkplain Locale.Category#FORMAT formatting} for this instance of the Java
     
* virtual machine.
     
*
     
* @param
  
fileName
     
*
         
The name of the file to use as the destination of this
     
*
         
formatter.
  
If the file exists then it will be truncated to
     
*
         
zero size; otherwise, a new file will be created.
  
The output
     
*
         
will be written to the file and is buffered.
     
*
     
* @param
  
csn
     
*
         
The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
     
*
         
charset}
     
*
     
* @throws
  
FileNotFoundException
     
*
          
If the given file name does not denote an existing, writable
     
*
          
regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
     
*
          
created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
     
*
          
creating the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
SecurityException
     
*
          
If a security manager is present and {@link
     
*
          
SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(fileName)} denies write
     
*
          
access to the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
UnsupportedEncodingException
     
*
          
If the named charset is not supported
     
*/

    
public Formatter(String fileName, String csn)
        
throws FileNotFoundException, UnsupportedEncodingException
    
{
        
this(fileName, csn, Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified file name, charset, and
     
* locale.
     
*
     
* @param
  
fileName
     
*
         
The name of the file to use as the destination of this
     
*
         
formatter.
  
If the file exists then it will be truncated to
     
*
         
zero size; otherwise, a new file will be created.
  
The output
     
*
         
will be written to the file and is buffered.
     
*
     
* @param
  
csn
     
*
         
The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
     
*
         
charset}
     
*
     
* @param
  
l
     
*
         
The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
     
*
         
formatting.
  
If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
     
*
         
is applied.
     
*
     
* @throws
  
FileNotFoundException
     
*
          
If the given file name does not denote an existing, writable
     
*
          
regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
     
*
          
created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
     
*
          
creating the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
SecurityException
     
*
          
If a security manager is present and {@link
     
*
          
SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(fileName)} denies write
     
*
          
access to the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
UnsupportedEncodingException
     
*
          
If the named charset is not supported
     
*/

    
public Formatter(String fileName, String csn, Locale l)
        
throws FileNotFoundException, UnsupportedEncodingException
    
{
        
this(toCharset(csn), l, new File(fileName));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified file.
     
*
     
* <p> The charset used is the {@linkplain
     
* java.nio.charset.Charset#defaultCharset() default charset} for this
     
* instance of the Java virtual machine.
     
*
     
* <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain
     
* Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default locale} for
     
* {@linkplain Locale.Category#FORMAT formatting} for this instance of the Java
     
* virtual machine.
     
*
     
* @param
  
file
     
*
         
The file to use as the destination of this formatter.
  
If the
     
*
         
file exists then it will be truncated to zero size; otherwise,
     
*
         
a new file will be created.
  
The output will be written to the
     
*
         
file and is buffered.
     
*
     
* @throws
  
SecurityException
     
*
          
If a security manager is present and {@link
     
*
          
SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(file.getPath())} denies
     
*
          
write access to the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
FileNotFoundException
     
*
          
If the given file object does not denote an existing, writable
     
*
          
regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
     
*
          
created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
     
*
          
creating the file
     
*/

    
public Formatter(File file) throws FileNotFoundException {
        
this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT),
             
new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(new FileOutputStream(file))));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified file and charset.
     
*
     
* <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain
     
* Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default locale} for
     
* {@linkplain Locale.Category#FORMAT formatting} for this instance of the Java
     
* virtual machine.
     
*
     
* @param
  
file
     
*
         
The file to use as the destination of this formatter.
  
If the
     
*
         
file exists then it will be truncated to zero size; otherwise,
     
*
         
a new file will be created.
  
The output will be written to the
     
*
         
file and is buffered.
     
*
     
* @param
  
csn
     
*
         
The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
     
*
         
charset}
     
*
     
* @throws
  
FileNotFoundException
     
*
          
If the given file object does not denote an existing, writable
     
*
          
regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
     
*
          
created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
     
*
          
creating the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
SecurityException
     
*
          
If a security manager is present and {@link
     
*
          
SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(file.getPath())} denies
     
*
          
write access to the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
UnsupportedEncodingException
     
*
          
If the named charset is not supported
     
*/

    
public Formatter(File file, String csn)
        
throws FileNotFoundException, UnsupportedEncodingException
    
{
        
this(file, csn, Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified file, charset, and
     
* locale.
     
*
     
* @param
  
file
     
*
         
The file to use as the destination of this formatter.
  
If the
     
*
         
file exists then it will be truncated to zero size; otherwise,
     
*
         
a new file will be created.
  
The output will be written to the
     
*
         
file and is buffered.
     
*
     
* @param
  
csn
     
*
         
The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
     
*
         
charset}
     
*
     
* @param
  
l
     
*
         
The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
     
*
         
formatting.
  
If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
     
*
         
is applied.
     
*
     
* @throws
  
FileNotFoundException
     
*
          
If the given file object does not denote an existing, writable
     
*
          
regular file and a new regular file of that name cannot be
     
*
          
created, or if some other error occurs while opening or
     
*
          
creating the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
SecurityException
     
*
          
If a security manager is present and {@link
     
*
          
SecurityManager#checkWrite checkWrite(file.getPath())} denies
     
*
          
write access to the file
     
*
     
* @throws
  
UnsupportedEncodingException
     
*
          
If the named charset is not supported
     
*/

    
public Formatter(File file, String csn, Locale l)
        
throws FileNotFoundException, UnsupportedEncodingException
    
{
        
this(toCharset(csn), l, file);
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified print stream.
     
*
     
* <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain
     
* Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default locale} for
     
* {@linkplain Locale.Category#FORMAT formatting} for this instance of the Java
     
* virtual machine.
     
*
     
* <p> Characters are written to the given {@link java.io.PrintStream
     
* PrintStream} object and are therefore encoded using that object's
     
* charset.
     
*
     
* @param
  
ps
     
*
         
The stream to use as the destination of this formatter.
     
*/

    
public Formatter(PrintStream ps) {
        
this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT),
             
(Appendable)Objects.requireNonNull(ps));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified output stream.
     
*
     
* <p> The charset used is the {@linkplain
     
* java.nio.charset.Charset#defaultCharset() default charset} for this
     
* instance of the Java virtual machine.
     
*
     
* <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain
     
* Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default locale} for
     
* {@linkplain Locale.Category#FORMAT formatting} for this instance of the Java
     
* virtual machine.
     
*
     
* @param
  
os
     
*
         
The output stream to use as the destination of this formatter.
     
*
         
The output will be buffered.
     
*/

    
public Formatter(OutputStream os) {
        
this(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT),
             
new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(os)));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified output stream and
     
* charset.
     
*
     
* <p> The locale used is the {@linkplain
     
* Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default locale} for
     
* {@linkplain Locale.Category#FORMAT formatting} for this instance of the Java
     
* virtual machine.
     
*
     
* @param
  
os
     
*
         
The output stream to use as the destination of this formatter.
     
*
         
The output will be buffered.
     
*
     
* @param
  
csn
     
*
         
The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
     
*
         
charset}
     
*
     
* @throws
  
UnsupportedEncodingException
     
*
          
If the named charset is not supported
     
*/

    
public Formatter(OutputStream os, String csn)
        
throws UnsupportedEncodingException
    
{
        
this(os, csn, Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT));
    
}

    
/**
     
* Constructs a new formatter with the specified output stream, charset,
     
* and locale.
     
*
     
* @param
  
os
     
*
         
The output stream to use as the destination of this formatter.
     
*
         
The output will be buffered.
     
*
     
* @param
  
csn
     
*
         
The name of a supported {@linkplain java.nio.charset.Charset
     
*
         
charset}
     
*
     
* @param
  
l
     
*
         
The {@linkplain java.util.Locale locale} to apply during
     
*
         
formatting.
  
If {@code l} is {@code null} then no localization
     
*
         
is applied.
     
*
     
* @throws
  
UnsupportedEncodingException
     
*
          
If the named charset is not supported
     
*/

    
public Formatter(OutputStream os, String csn, Locale l)
        
throws UnsupportedEncodingException
    
{
        
this(l, new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(os, csn)));
    
}

    
private static char getZero(Locale l) {
        
if ((l != null) && !l.equals(Locale.US)) {
            
DecimalFormatSymbols dfs = DecimalFormatSymbols.getInstance(l);
            
return dfs.getZeroDigit();
        
} else {
            
return '0';
        
}
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the locale set by the construction of this formatter.
     
*
     
* <p> The {@link #format(java.util.Locale,String,Object...) format} method
     
* for this object which has a locale argument does not change this value.
     
*
     
* @return
  
{@code null} if no localization is applied, otherwise a
     
*
          
locale
     
*
     
* @throws
  
FormatterClosedException
     
*
          
If this formatter has been closed by invoking its {@link
     
*
          
#close()} method
     
*/

    
public Locale locale() {
        
ensureOpen();
        
return l;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the destination for the output.
     
*
     
* @return
  
The destination for the output
     
*
     
* @throws
  
FormatterClosedException
     
*
          
If this formatter has been closed by invoking its {@link
     
*
          
#close()} method
     
*/

    
public Appendable out() {
        
ensureOpen();
        
return a;
    
}

    
/**
     
* Returns the result of invoking {@code toString()} on the destination
     
* for the output.
  
For example, the following code formats text into a
     
* {@link StringBuilder} then retrieves the resultant string:
     
*
     
* <blockquote><pre>
     
*
   
Formatter f = new Formatter();
     
*
   
f.format("Last reboot at %tc", lastRebootDate);
     
*
   
String s = f.toString();
     
*
   
// -&gt; s == "Last reboot at Sat Jan 01 00:00:00 PST 2000"
     
* </pre></blockquote>
     
*
     
* <p> An invocation of this method behaves in exactly the same way as the
     
* invocation
     
*
     
* <pre>
     
*out().toString() </pre>
     
*
     
* <p> Depending on the specification of {@code toString} for the {@link
     
* Appendable}, the returned string may or may not contain the characters
     
* written to the destination.
  
For instance, buffers typically return
     
* their contents in {@code toString()}, but streams cannot since the
     
* data is discarded.
     
*
     
* @return
  
The result of invoking {@code toString()} on the destination
     
*
          
for the output
     
*
     
* @throws
  
FormatterClosedException
     
*